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To understand how ongoing neuronal activity affects baseline BOLD signals, neuronal and resultant fMRI responses were simultaneously recorded in the right hippocampus of male rats during continuous low-frequency (2 or 4 Hz) pulse stimulation of the right perforant pathway. Despite continuously increased neuronal activity, BOLD signals only transiently increased in the hippocampus and subsequently returned to either the initial level (2 Hz) or even to a consistently lower level (4 Hz). Whereas the initially transient increase in BOLD signals coincided with an increased spiking of granule cells, the subsequent reduction of BOLD signals was independent of granule cell spiking activity but coincided with persistent inhibition of granule cell excitability, i.e., with reduced postsynaptic activity and prolonged population spike latency. The decline in BOLD signals occurred in the presence of an elevated local cerebral blood volume (CBV), thus the reduction of granule cell excitability is attended by high oxygen consumption. When previous or current stimulations lessen baseline BOLD signals, subsequent short stimulation periods only elicited attenuated BOLD responses, even when actual spiking activity of granule cells was similar. Thus, the quality of stimulus-induced BOLD responses critically depends on the current existing inhibitory activity, which closely relates to baseline BOLD signals. Thus, a meaningful interpretation of stimulus-induced BOLD responses should consider slowly developing variations in baseline BOLD signals; therefore, baseline correction tools should be cautiously used for fMRI data analysis.
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A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.
A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.
A widely expressed member of the TNF receptor-associated family that may play a role in neuronal development and EMBRYOGENESIS. Although TNF receptor-associated factor 4 does not strongly associate with TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS it may be a signaling partner with the GLUCOCORTICOID-INDUCED TNFR-RELATED PROTEIN that plays a role in the activation of JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and NF-KAPPA B.
A hyalectin family member that is expressed in neuronal tissue and plays a role in neuronal CELL ADHESION.
The tendency to react to stimuli that are different from, but somewhat similar to, the stimulus used as a conditioned stimulus.