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A promising strategy for the enhancement of vaccine-mediated immune responses is by directly targeting protein antigens to immune cells. Targeting of antigens to the dendritic cell (DC) molecule Clec9A has been shown to enhance antibody affinity and titers for model antigens, and influenza and enterovirus antigens, and may be advantageous for immunogens that otherwise fail to elicit antibodies with sufficient titers and breadth for broad protection, such as the envelope protein (Env) of HIV. Previously employed targeting strategies often utilize receptor-specific antibodies, however it is impractical to conjugate a bivalent IgG antibody to oligomeric antigens, including HIV Env trimers. Here we designed single chain variable fragment (scFv) and single chain Fab (scFab) constructs of a Clec9A-targeting antibody, expressed as genetically fused conjugates with the soluble ectodomain of Env, gp140. This conjugation did not affect the presentation of Env neutralising antibody epitopes. The scFab moiety was shown to be more stable than scFv, and in the context of gp140 fusions, was able to mediate better binding to recombinant and cell surface-expressed Clec9A, although the level of binding to cell-surface Clec9A was lower than that of the anti-Clec9A IgG. However, binding to Clec9A on the surface of DCs was not detected. Mouse immunization experiments suggested that the Clec9A-binding activity of the scFab-gp140 conjugate was insufficient to enhance Env-specific antibody responses. This is an important first proof of principle study demonstrating the conjugation of a scFab to an oligomeric protein antigen, and that an scFab displays better antigen binding than the corresponding scFv. Future developments of this technique that increase the scFab affinity will provide a valuable means to target oligomeric proteins to cell surface antigens of interest, improving vaccine-generated immune responses.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
Experimental information from small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is conjugated with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy data for the improvement of protein structure determination, particul...
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Dengue virus poses a considerable clinical problem, with the four closely related serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) infecting around 50-100 million people per year world-wide. The drastic increase in t...
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Domain swapping is a widespread oligomerization process that is observed in a large variety of protein families. In the large superfamily of substrate-binding proteins, non-monomeric members have rare...
Effectiveness of Early Enteral Feeding With High Protein Polymeric Formula Versus Oligomeric Formula Versus 5% Dextrose Solution in Clinical Improvement and Malnutrition on Intensive Care ...
This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells with a chlorotoxin tumor-targeting domain in treating patients with glioblastoma that h...
To prevent HIV infection, a vaccine that produces strong HIV-specific humoral (B-cell) and cellular (T-cell) immune system responses is desirable. The purpose of this study is to test the ...
The overall goal of this study is to identify a safe dose of metformin, in combination with oligomeric procyanidin complex (OPC) for pharmacologic reduction of AGE levels in patients with ...
A Phase I, Multicenter, Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of a Recombinant Vaccinia-HIV Envelope Vaccine (HIVAC-1e) in Combination With a Panel of Subunit Recombinant HIV Envelope Vaccines in Vaccinia-Naive Individuals
Primary: To determine whether combination vaccination, i.e., priming with a vaccinia recombinant-containing HIV envelope (HIVAC-1e) followed by boosting with a recombinant subunit envelope...
An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
An adaptor protein characterized by an N-terminal BTB-POZ DOMAIN and six KELCH REPEATS that functions as a substrate for the E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE complex. It negatively-regulates NF-E2-RELATED FACTOR 2 by targeting it for ubiquitination and degradation by the PROTEASOME. It also represses genes regulated by ANTIOXIDANT RESPONSE ELEMENTS.
An autophagy related protein that is similar to UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYME E1. It functions in CYTOPLASM to VACUOLE transport (Cvt) and AUTOPHAGY by activating ATG12 PROTEIN for its conjugation with ATG5 PROTEIN, as well as the conjugation of ATG8 FAMILY PROTEINS with phosphatidylethanolamine for ATG8 association to Cvt vesicles and AUTOPHAGOSOME membranes. It is also required for the nitrogen starvation response in yeast, MITOPHAGY; and autophagic cell death induced by CASPASE 8 inhibition.
Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the causative agent of AIDS. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus, more commonly known as HIV, is a member of the lentivirus sub-set of the retrovirus family of pathogens. It causes AIDS, or Acquired Immuno Deficiency Sy...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...
A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one ...