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Although banned, dyes, such as Victoria pure blue BO (VPBO), are illicitly used in aquaculture to treat or prevent infections due to their therapeutic activities. The present study examined the formation of phase I and phase II metabolites derived from VPBO using trout liver microsomes and S9 proteins. The well-known malachite green (MG) dye was also studied as a positive control and to compare its metabolism with that of VPBO. First, we optimised the incubation conditions for the detection of VPBO and MG metabolites by studying the formation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) substrates. Using the determined conditions (2 h at 20 °C), we incubated VPBO with trout microsomal and S9 fractions induced with β-naphtoflavone, and analysed the supernatant in a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap-HRMS system. The in vitro assays led to the detection of 16 VPBO metabolites from Phase I reactions, arising in particular from reactions with CYP1A. No metabolites were detected from Phase II reactions. The main metabolite detected, deethyl-VPBO, was CID-fragmented to determine its chemical structure, and thus recommend a potential biomarker for the control of VPBO in farmed fish foodstuffs.
This article was published in the following journal.
Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been greatly developed in recent years owing to their abundant advantages for full-color displays and general-purpose lightings. Blue emitters not only provi...
Focal unilateral traumatic brain injury in the sensorimotor cortical region disturbed the functions of contralateral limbs controlled by the damaged hemisphere. A single intravenous injection of methy...
The combination of different colors from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) may influence growth and production of secondary metabolites in plants. In the present study, the effect of light quality on morph...
This study aims to determine the effect of pure forms of sucralose and aspartame, in doses reflective of common consumption, on glucose metabolism.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a world-wide pro-inflammatory based disease, which is prevalent among young individuals. The etiology of the disease and its related complications are yet to be clarified. I...
The Alfred Hospital receives approximately 40% of the major trauma patients in Victoria, all of whom are at risk for spinal injuries. The potential for spinal injuries necessitates the und...
The purpose of this study is to map the arm lymphatic drainage system in the axilla with blue dye and the breast drainage system with a radioactive material. By identifying the arm lymphat...
Each winter, viruses belonging to two kinds of influenza A ("A/H1N1" & "A/H3N2") and two kinds of influenza B ("B/Yamagata" & "B/Victoria") can cause illness. Historically, the yearly infl...
The goal of this clinical research study is to compare methylene blue (an oral rinse) to standard therapy to learn if one is better, the same, or worse than the other in controlling mucosi...
RATIONALE: Diagnostic procedures, such as blue dye or imaging to identify sentinel lymph nodes, may improve the ability to detect the extent of disease and help plan effective surgery for ...
A congenital disease caused by an inborn error involving APOLIPOPROTEINS E leading to abnormal LIPID METABOLISM and the accumulation of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS, particularly SPHINGOMYELINS in the HISTIOCYTES. This disorder is characterized by SPLENOMEGALY and the sea-blue histiocytes in the spleen and bone marrow after May Grunwald staining.
The reaction of potassium ferrocyanide with ferric iron to yield a dark blue precipitate at the sites of the ferric iron. Used to determine ferric iron in tissues, particularly in the diagnosis of disorders of iron metabolism.
Usually a benign tumor, that commonly presents as a solitary blue nodule with spindled MELANOCYTES covered by smooth SKIN. Several variants have been identified, one variant being malignant. The blue color is caused by large, densely packed melanocytes deep in the DERMIS of the nevus. In CHILDREN, they usually occur on the BUTTOCKS and LUMBOSACRAL REGION and are referred to as cellular blue nevi. Malignant blue nevi are more commonly found on the SCALP.
Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.
A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...
In a clinical trial or interventional study, participants receive specific interventions according to the research plan or protocol created by the investigators. These interventions may be medical products, such as drugs or devices; procedures; or change...
Hepatology is the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas, and diseases associated with them. This includes viral hepatitis, alcohol damage, cirrhosis and cancer. As modern lifestyles change, with alcoholism and cancer becoming more promi...