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lncRNAs, genes transcribed but not translated, longer than 200 nucleotides, are classified as a separate class of non-protein coding genes. Since their discovery, largely from RNAseq data, a number of pioneer studies has begun to unravel its myriad functions, centered on gene expression regulation, suggesting developmental and evolutionary conservation. Since they do not code for proteins and have no open reading frames, their functional constraints likely differ from that of protein coding genes, or of genes where the majority of the nucleotide sequence is required for function, like tRNAs. This has complicated assessment of both developmental and evolutionary conservation, and the identification of homologs in different species. Here we argue that other characteristics: general synteny and particular chromosomal placement regardless of sequence, sequence micro-motifs, and secondary structure allow for "homologs" to be identified and compared, confirming developmental and evolutionary conservation of lncRNAs. We conclude exemplifying a case in point: that of the evolutionarily conserved lncRNA acal, characterized and required for embryogenesis in Drosophila. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Name: Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Ageing-associated changes in the protein coding transcriptome have been extensively characterised, but less attention has been paid to the non-coding portion of the human genome, especially to long no...
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Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a central role in the regulation of gene expression. Although they were initially described as mRNA-like transcripts not encoding proteins, global approaches such a...
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Beliefs and values shared by all members of the organization. These shared values are reflected in the day to day operations of the organization.
An organization of insurers or reinsurers through which particular types of risk are shared or pooled. The risk of high loss by a particular insurance company is transferred to the group as a whole (the insurance pool) with premiums, losses, and expenses shared in agreed amounts.
A receptor subunit that is a shared component of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR; the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR; and the GM-CSF RECEPTOR. High affinity receptor complexes are formed with each of these receptors when their respective alpha subunits are combined with this shared beta subunit.
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
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The process of gene expression is used by eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-tran...