The Era of Checkpoint Inhibition: Lessons Learned from Melanoma.

07:00 EST 1st January 2020 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "The Era of Checkpoint Inhibition: Lessons Learned from Melanoma."

Treatment of patients with advanced metastatic melanoma has for decades been a story of very limited success. This dramatically changed when therapy with anti-PD-1 checkpoint blocking antibodies was approved in the USA and Europe in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The therapy exploits the capacity of CD8 T cells to specifically kill tumor cells. Within the tumor microenvironment, CD8 T cell activity is blocked by suppressive signals received via PD-1, an inhibitory co-receptor and so-called checkpoint of T cell activation. PD-1 binds to its ligand PD-L1 on melanoma cells which dampens the T cell's activity. Antibodies blocking inhibitory PD-1/PD-L1 interaction release T cells from suppression. Treatment of late-stage disease melanoma patients with antibodies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis, termed immune checkpoint blocking therapy (ICBT), yields clinical frequently long-lasting responses in 30-40% of cases. Despite this remarkable breakthrough, still the majority of patients resists ICBT or develops resistance after initial therapy response. Administration of anti-PD-1 antibodies in combination with antibodies targeting CTLA-4, another inhibitory immune checkpoint increased clinical responses rate up to 50% but at costs of higher treatment-related toxicities. Thus, strong efforts are now directed toward the understanding of therapy resistance, the identification of biomarkers predicting therapy response, and the development of alternative PD-1-based combination treatment to improve patient outcomes.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progres dans les recherches sur le cancer
ISSN: 0080-0015
Pages: 169-187


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