Epitranscriptomic systems regulate the translation of reactive oxygen species detoxifying and disease linked selenoproteins.

08:00 EDT 30th August 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Epitranscriptomic systems regulate the translation of reactive oxygen species detoxifying and disease linked selenoproteins."

Here we highlight the role of epitranscriptomic systems in post-transcriptional regulation, with a specific focus on RNA modifying writers required for the incorporation of the 21st amino acid selenocysteine during translation, and the pathologies linked to epitranscriptomic and selenoprotein defects. Epitranscriptomic marks in the form of enzyme-catalyzed modifications to RNA have been shown to be important signals regulating translation, with defects linked to altered development, intellectual impairment, and cancer. Modifications to rRNA, mRNA and tRNA can affect their structure and function, while the levels of these dynamic tRNA-specific epitranscriptomic marks are stress-regulated to control translation. The tRNA for selenocysteine contains five distinct epitranscriptomic marks and the ALKBH8 writer for the wobble uridine (U) has been shown to be vital for the translation of the glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and thioredoxin reductase (TRXR) family of selenoproteins. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxifying selenocysteine containing proteins are a prime examples of how specialized translation can be regulated by specific tRNA modifications working in conjunction with distinct codon usage patterns, RNA binding proteins and specific 3' untranslated region (UTR) signals. We highlight the important role of selenoproteins in detoxifying ROS and provide details on how epitranscriptomic marks and selenoproteins can play key roles in and maintaining mitochondrial function and preventing disease.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Free radical biology & medicine
ISSN: 1873-4596


DeepDyve research library

PubMed Articles [19147 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Molecular tools to generate reactive oxygen species in biological systems.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) not only are by-products of aerobic respiration, but also play vital roles in metabolism regulation and signal transductions. It is important to understand the functions ...

Laminin-derived peptide C16 regulates Tks expression and reactive oxygen species generation in human prostate cancer cells.

Laminin peptides influence cancer biology. We investigated the role of a laminin-derived peptide C16 regulating invadopodia molecules in human prostate cancer cells (DU145). C16 augmented invadopodia ...

ROS and Oxidative Stress Are Elevated in Mitosis during Asynchronous Cell Cycle Progression and Are Exacerbated by Mitotic Arrest.

Although elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been observed in cancer cells and cancer cells aberrantly proliferate, it is not known whether the level of reactive oxygen species and t...

Reactive oxygen species-responsive drug delivery systems for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Neurodegenerative diseases and disorders seriously impact memory and cognition and can become life-threatening. Current medical techniques attempt to combat these detrimental effects mainly through th...

Reactive oxygen species: The signal regulator of B cell.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are indispensable for determining the fate of immune cells in both physiological and pathogenic environments, thus stimulating the interest of immunologists and clinician...

Clinical Trials [4260 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Switching to Low Oxidant Content Cigarettes in Adult Smokers

The overall objective of this clinical study is to determine if smokers who switch from their usual high reactive oxygen and nitrous oxide species (ROS/NOS) products to a low ROS/NOS produ...

Inhaled Apocynin Decreases Reactive Oxygen Species Concentrations in Exhaled Breath Condensate in Mild Asthmatics

The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of inhaled apocynin on ROS (reactive oxygen species) and NOS (reactive nitrogen species) synthesis in 10 nonsmoking mild asthmatics. Effec...

Flow Cytometry Analysis of the Reactive Oxygen Species in Immature Granulocytes in Septic Patient

Sepsis is life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Early during sepsis course, immature neutrophils could be found in the bloodstream and may...

Ascorbic Acid Treatment in Congenital Glucocorticoids and Mineralocorticoids Deficiency Due to NNT Mutation

Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) mutations cause glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiencies through decreased detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in adreno...

Efficacy of N-Acetylcysteine in Treatment of Overt Diabetic Nephropathy

Diabetic nephropathy has become the single most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease. On a molecular level, at least five major pathways have been implicated in glucose-mediated vasc...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.

Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.

Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.

A technique for causing a targeted loss of molecular function from REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES that are formed by the illumination of dyes placed in the immediate vicinity of the target molecule.

Oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol or its sterol precursors. They are generated from sterol metabolism and the interaction of cholesterol with REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES.

Quick Search

DeepDyve research library

Relevant Topics

Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...

Cancer Disease
Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start - for example, cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer; cancer th...

Searches Linking to this Article