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Influenza A and B virus infections are a major cause of respiratory disease in humans and are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Vaccination against influenza mainly aims at the induction of virus neutralizing serum antibodies, which are an important correlate of protection provided that the antibodies match the strains causing the outbreaks antigenically. In addition, virus-specific T cells are known to contribute to protective immunity to influenza virus infections by limiting duration and severity of the disease. As the majority of virus-specific T cells recognize epitopes located in relatively conserved proteins, like the Nucleoprotein and Matrix 1 protein, they display a high degree of cross-reactivity with a wide range of influenza viruses, including newly emerging viruses of alternative subtypes. Advancing our understanding of influenza virus-specific T cell responses and their role in protective immunity against influenza will aid the rational design of novel vaccines that could induce robust, broad and long-lasting immune responses. Here, we discuss the contribution of influenza virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to protective immunity against influenza infection and the requirements and strategies for their induction by natural infection or vaccination, especially in children.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
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Allergies Automimmune Disease Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunology Vaccine Immunology is the study of immunity and the defence mechanisms of the body. A greater understanding of immunology is needed to develop vaccines, understand ...