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Stromal keratophakia was first performed by José Ignacio Barraquer in the 1960s. The refractive lamellar keratoplasty technique was intensely pursued in the 1980s as a method to alter corneal refractive power. However, because sculpting of the donor stromal lenticule and lamellar keratectomy of the recipient's cornea were performed with a mechanical microkeratome, the quality of the cut was poor and inconsistent. Consequently, the refractive outcomes of the lenticule implantation were poor. In addition, epithelial ingrowth, interface scarring, and induced astigmatism were common due to the inaccuracy of stromal resection. With the advancements of femtosecond laser, we are now able to optically sculpt a refractive lenticule and create an intrastromal pocket for implantation, with greater accuracy and precision compared to manual incisions. The lenticule can be decellularized, cryopreserved, and implanted on a later date to correct hyperopia and presbyopia, as well as to treat corneal ectasia and perforations. In this article, we will review the history of stromal keratophakia and the shortcomings of the previous attempts that led to its abandonment. We will then discuss the reinvigoration of stromal keratophakia with the emergence of advanced femtosecond laser technologies, including the basic science and clinical applications of femtosecond laser-assisted stromal keratophakia, methods to decellularize, cryopreserve and transport the refractive lenticule, lenticule banking, and regulatory framework that oversees the distribution and clinical translation of stromal lenticule implantation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Progress in retinal and eye research
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Neoplasms of the endometrial stroma that sometimes involve the MYOMETRIUM. These tumors contain cells that may closely or remotely resemble the normal stromal cells. Endometrial stromal neoplasms are divided into three categories: (1) benign stromal nodules; (2) low-grade stromal sarcoma, or endolymphatic stromal myosis; and (3) malignant endometrial stromal sarcoma (SARCOMA, ENDOMETRIAL STROMAL).
A stromal interaction molecule that functions as a highly sensitive calcium sensor in the ENDOPLAMSIC RETICULUM and CYTOSOL. It can regulate CALCIUM RELEASE ACTIVATED CALCIUM CHANNELS in response to minor variations in intracellular calcium.
A stromal interaction molecule that functions in the regulation of calcium influx following depletion of intracellular calcium in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. It translocates to the plasma membrane upon calcium depletion where it activates the CALCIUM RELEASE ACTIVATED CALCIUM CHANNEL ORAI1.
A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.
Neoplasms derived from the primitive sex cord or gonadal stromal cells of the embryonic GONADS. They are classified by their presumed histogenesis and differentiation. From the sex cord, there are SERTOLI CELL TUMOR and GRANULOSA CELL TUMOR; from the gonadal stroma, LEYDIG CELL TUMOR and THECOMA. These tumors may be identified in either the OVARY or the TESTIS.
Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that is devoted to the study and treatment of eye diseases. As well as mild visual defects correctable by lenses, ophthalmology is concerned with glaucoma, uveitis and other serious conditions affecting the eye, ...