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Ginseng is the most frequently used herbal medicine for immune system stimulation and as an adjuvant with prescribed drugs owing to its numerous pharmacologic activities. It is important to investigate the beneficial effects and interaction of ginseng with therapeutic drugs. This review comprehensively discusses drug metabolizing enzyme- and transporter-mediated ginseng-drug interaction by analyzing in vitro and clinical results with a focus on ginsenoside, a pharmacologically active marker of ginseng. Impact of ginseng therapy or ginseng combination therapy on diabetic patients and of ginseng interaction with antiplatelets and anticoagulants were evaluated based on ginseng origin and ginsenoside content. Daily administration of Korean red ginseng (0.5-3 g extract; dried ginseng > 60%) did not cause significant herb-drug interaction with drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Among various therapeutic drugs administered in combination with ginseng, adjuvant chemotherapy, comprising ginseng (1-3 g extract) and anticancer drugs, was effective for reducing cancer-related fatigue and improving the quality of life and emotional scores. Limited information regarding ginsenoside content in each ginseng product and plasma ginsenoside concentration among patients necessitates standardization of ginseng product and establishment of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic correlation to further understand beneficial effects of ginseng-therapeutic drug interactions in future clinical studies.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Archives of pharmacal research
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An anticonvulsant that is used in a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.
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People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.
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