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A score system was used to evaluate pain, distress and discomfort in healthy pigs and pigs with two different diseases: lameness and rectal prolapse. In addition, correlations between the results of this score and a panel of salivary biomarkers and severity of disease were studied. This panel included biomarkers of stress (cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), total esterase activity (TEA), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and lipase (Lip)), immunity (adenosine deaminase isozymes 1 (ADA1) and 2 (ADA2)) and oxidative status (uric acid (UA), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferric reducing ability of saliva (FRAS), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and hydrogen peroxide (HO)). Based on their score, diseased animals were subdivided in those without and with evident pain. Lame pigs and prolapsed pigs with pain showed higher salivary levels of cortisol, sAA, TEA, BChE, ADA1 and ADA2 compared with the healthy pigs. In addition, the prolapsed pigs with pain showed higher levels of FRAS, AOPP and HO compared with the healthy animals. Salivary cortisol, TEA, BChE, ADA isozymes 1 and 2, FRAS and AOPP correlated with the pain score. This five-point pain score system can be easily applied to lame and prolapsed pigs, and salivary biomarkers could be used as an additional tool for pain assessment in those pigs.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Research in veterinary science
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