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Mild to moderate cognitive decrements are a well-known phenomenon associated with diabetes mellitus. In this review, we provide an overview of the cognitive consequences of type 1 and type 2 diabetes based on hallmark studies that follow patients over an extended period of time. In patients with type 1 diabetes, cognitive dysfunction appears soon after diagnosis and can be found in individuals of any age. The magnitude of these effects is generally modest, although their severity is especially pronounced in those with early onset type 1 diabetes (diagnosis before 7 years of age) or those who have developed microvascular disease, such as proliferative retinopathy. Rates of type 2 diabetes have increased dramatically over the past 20 years, in part driven by the world-wide epidemic of obesity, and this form of diabetes is appearing at a progressively younger age. Again, cognition may be disrupted, particularly in those who are in poorer glycemic control, and there is some evidence to suggest that with increasing diabetes duration, the rate of cognitive decline is accelerated and the risk of dementia is increased significantly.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Neurobiology of disease
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A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by excessive LIPOLYSIS, oxidation of FATTY ACIDS, production of KETONE BODIES, a sweet smell to the breath (KETOSIS;) DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
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