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Friedreich ataxia is the most common of the hereditary ataxias. It is due to homozygous/compound heterozygous mutations in FXN. This gene encodes frataxin, a protein largely localized to mitochondria. In about 96% of affected individuals there is homozygosity for a GAA repeat expansion in intron 1 of the FXN gene. Studies of people with Friedreich ataxia and of animal and cell models, have provided much insight into the pathogenesis of this disorder. The expanded GAA repeat leads to transcriptional deficiency of the FXN gene. The consequent deficiency of frataxin protein leads to reduced iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis and mitochondrial ATP production, elevated mitochondrial iron, and oxidative stress. More recently, a role for inflammation has emerged as being important in the pathogenesis of Friedreich ataxia. These findings have led to a number of potential therapies that have been subjected to clinical trials or are being developed toward human studies. Therapies that have been proposed include pharmaceuticals that increase frataxin levels, protein and gene replacement therapies, antioxidants, iron chelators and modulators of inflammation. Whilst no therapies have yet been approved for Friedreich ataxia, there is much optimism that the advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of this disorder since the discovery its genetic basis, will result in approved disease modifying therapies in the near future.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Neurobiology of disease
We assessed the effect of methylprednisolone on safety, tolerability and ability in Friedreich Ataxia (FRDA).
Friedreich ataxia is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease associated with a high diabetes prevalence. No treatment is available to prevent or delay disease progression. Friedreich ataxia i...
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a chronic, progressive and highly disabling cerebellar degenerative disease. Despite this, little attention has been paid to the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in t...
Although a concentric pattern of left ventricular (LV) geometry appears to be common in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), there is no accepted method for diagnosing LV abnormalities in FRDA, sex and body size...
Friedreich ataxia is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with reported abnormalities in cerebellar, brainstem, and cerebral white matter. White matter structure can be measured using in vivo neur...
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of children and adults for which there is presently no therapy. Recently, a study reported that interferon gamma (IFN-g)...
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effects of MIN-102 on Biochemical, Imaging, neurophysiological, and clinical markers in patients with Friedreich's Ataxia
The purpose of this study is to determine if varenicline is effective in treating symptoms of Friedreich's ataxia.
The primary purpose of the study is to determine whether carbamylated erythropoietin is a safe treatment for patients who suffer from Friedreich's Ataxia.
The purpose of this phase 3 multi-center, open-label extension study is to evaluate the long-term safety of ACTIMMUNE (interferon-γ 1b) in subjects with Friedreich's Ataxia (FA).
An autosomal recessive disease, usually of childhood onset, characterized pathologically by degeneration of the spinocerebellar tracts, posterior columns, and to a lesser extent the corticospinal tracts. Clinical manifestations include GAIT ATAXIA, pes cavus, speech impairment, lateral curvature of spine, rhythmic head tremor, kyphoscoliosis, congestive heart failure (secondary to a cardiomyopathy), and lower extremity weakness. Most forms of this condition are associated with a mutation in a gene on chromosome 9, at band q13, which codes for the mitochondrial protein frataxin. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1081; N Engl J Med 1996 Oct 17;335(16):1169-75) The severity of Friedreich ataxia associated with expansion of GAA repeats in the first intron of the frataxin gene correlates with the number of trinucleotide repeats. (From Durr et al, N Engl J Med 1996 Oct 17;335(16):1169-75)
Therapies using arts or directed at the senses.
Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.
Prenatal interventions to correct fetal anomalies or treat FETAL DISEASES in utero. Fetal therapies include several major areas, such as open surgery; FETOSCOPY; pharmacological therapy; INTRAUTERINE TRANSFUSION; STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and GENE THERAPY.
Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...