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Multivalent protein-protein interactions serve central roles in many essential biological processes, ranging from cell signaling and adhesion to pathogen recognition. Uncovering the rules that govern these intricate interactions is important not only to basic biology and chemistry, but also to the applied sciences where researchers are interested in developing molecules to promote or inhibit these interactions. Here we report the synthesis and application of atomically precise inorganic cluster nanomolecules consisting of an inorganic core and a covalently linked densely-packed layer of saccharides. These hybrid agents are stable under biologically relevant conditions and exhibit multivalent binding capabilities, which enable us to study the complex interactions between glycosylated structures and a dendritic cell lectin receptor. Importantly, we find that subtle changes in the molecular structure lead to significant differences in the nanomolecule's protein-binding properties. Furthermore, we demonstrate an example of using these hybrid nanomolecules to effectively inhibit protein-protein interactions in a human cell line. Ultimately, this work reveals an intricate interplay between the structural design of multivalent agents and their biological activities toward protein surfaces.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Bioconjugate chemistry
Multivalent protein-protein interactions including bivalent and trivalent interactions play a critical role in mediating a wide range of biological processes. Hence, there is a significant interest in...
Multivalent binding interactions are commonly found throughout biology to enhance weak monovalent binding such as between glycoligands and protein receptors. Designing multivalent polymers to bind to ...
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Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A protein that accounts for more than half of the peripheral nervous system myelin protein. The extracellular domain of this protein is believed to engage in adhesive interactions and thus hold the myelin membrane compact. It can behave as a homophilic adhesion molecule through interactions with its extracellular domains. (From J Cell Biol 1994;126(4):1089-97)
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An inhibitory smad protein that associates with TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA RECEPTORS and BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It negatively regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS by inhibiting PHOSPHORYLATION of RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
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