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Human prion diseases including sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), inherited prion diseases, and acquired human prion diseases are lethal neurodegenerative diseases. One of the major sources of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was human growth hormone (hGH-iCJD) derived from contaminated cadaveric pituitaries. The incidence of hGH-iCJD has decreased since changing from growth hormone extracted from human cadaveric pituitaries to recombinant pituitary hormones. However, extensive analysis on the localization and detecting of abnormal prion protein in the pituitary gland are limited. In this study, we examined 9 autopsied brains and pituitary glands from 6 patients with prion disease (3 Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease, 2 sCJD, and 1 dura mater graft-associated CJD) and 3 individuals with nonprion diseases. Western blot analysis of pituitary samples demonstrated unique glycoforms of normal cellular prion protein with molecular weights of 30-40 kDa, which was higher than the typical 25-35 kDa prion protein in brains. Proteomic analysis also revealed prion protein approximately the molecular weight of 40 kDa in pituitary samples. Moreover, proteinase K-resistant Prion protein was frequently detected in pituitary samples of the prion diseases. Immunohistochemistry for Prion protein revealed mosaic cellular distribution preferentially in growth hormone- or prolactin-producing cells.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
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To determine the outcomes of patients with different pituitary disorders whether they are managed medically, surgically or expectantly.
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Abnormal isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS) resulting from a posttranslational modification of the cellular prion protein (PRPC PROTEINS). PrPSc are disease-specific proteins seen in certain human and animal neurodegenerative diseases (PRION DISEASES).
A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; and a fatal outcome. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The older literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83)
Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestations include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)
A form of dwarfism caused by complete or partial GROWTH HORMONE deficiency, resulting from either the lack of GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING FACTOR from the HYPOTHALAMUS or from the mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) in the PITUITARY GLAND. It is also known as Type I pituitary dwarfism. Human hypophysial dwarf is caused by a deficiency of HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE during development.
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