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G-quadruplexes (GQs) are four-stranded secondary structures formed by G-rich nucleic acid sequence(s). DNA GQs are present abundantly in the genome and affect a wide range of processes associated with DNA. Recent studies show that RNA GQs are present in different transcripts, including coding and noncoding areas of mRNA, telomeric RNA as well as in other premature and mature noncoding RNAs. When present at specific locations within the RNAs, GQs play important roles in key biological functions, including the regulation of gene expression and telomere homeostasis. RNA GQs regulate pre-mRNA processing, such as splicing and polyadenylation. Evidently, among other processes, RNA GQs also control mRNA translation, miRNA and piRNA biogenesis, and RNA localization. The regulatory mechanisms controlled by RNA GQs mainly involve binding to RNA binding protein that modulate GQ conformation or serve as an entity in recruiting additional protein regulators to act as a block element to the processing machinery. Here we provide an overview of the ever-increasing number of discoveries revealing the role of RNA GQs in biology and their relevance in human diseases and therapeutics. This article is categorized under: RNA Structure and Dynamics > Influence of RNA Structure in Biological Systems RNA in Disease and Development > RNA in Disease.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. RNA
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In vitro transcription of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) induces a formation of two types of G-quadruplexes, intramolecular DNA G-quadruplexes or DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplexes, in clusters of guanine tra...
Albeit most studies demonstrate the inhibitory role of G-quadruplex in the 5' Untranslated Region (5' UTR), our previous report depicted its completely contrasting activating role in the 5' UTR of tra...
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G-quadruplexes (G4s) have become one of the most exciting nucleic acid secondary structures. A noncanonical, four-stranded structure formed in guanine-rich DNA and RNA sequences, G-quadruplexes can re...
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To collect human tissue, blood, and fecal samples from patients suffering from Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Colorectal Cancer. The samples will be used to establish biomimetic human orga...
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Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Human experimentation that is intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed.
Genetic diseases that are linked to gene mutations on the X CHROMOSOME in humans (X CHROMOSOME, HUMAN) or the X CHROMOSOME in other species. Included here are animal models of human X-linked diseases.
Genetic diseases that are linked to mutant ALLELES on the Y CHROMOSOME in humans (Y CHROMOSOME, HUMAN) or the Y chromosome in other species. Included here are animal models of human Y-linked diseases.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...