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Losartan presents multiple peaks in the concentration-time profile. This characteristic can be attributed to gastric emptying, which is known to significantly affect the disposition of highly soluble and permeable compounds. The aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for losartan and its active metabolite (EXP-3174) in order to describe the effect of gastric emptying on their disposition. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using concentration-time data derived from a crossover bioequivalence study in 31 volunteers after a single oral dose of 100mg losartan potassium in the fasted state. Delay differential equations (DDEs) were explored for the description of losartan absorption and EXP-3174 formation, since when solved they result in oscillatory behaviour. A two-compartment model preceded by a pre-absorption compartment (referring to small intestine) adequately described the observed concentration-time profiles of losartan. In the final model, a sinusoidal equation was used for the description of gastric emptying in view of its simplicity, leading to enhanced stability of the model and its capacity to describe periodicity. In case of EXP-3174, a one-compartment model, with a delayed first-order formation rate from losartan's central compartment, best described its disposition. Using the model developed, it was shown through simulations that changes in gastric emptying parameters lead to changes in the C-t profiles of both compounds. In particular, plasma oscillations can be enhanced or completely suppressed, simply by changing parameters affecting gastric emptying.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology
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The probability distribution associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes; used to model cumulative incidence rates and prevalence rates. The Bernoulli distribution is a special case of binomial distribution.
Neuropeptides of about 40 amino acids which are structurally similar to CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING FACTOR. Unlike CRF acting primarily through type 1 CRF RECEPTORS, urocortins signal preferentially through type 2 CRF receptors. Urocortins have wide tissue distribution from fish to mammals, and diverse functions. In mammals, urocortins can suppress food intake, delays gastric emptying, and decreases heat-induced edema.
The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.
A pancreatic beta-cell hormone that is co-secreted with INSULIN. It displays an anorectic effect on nutrient metabolism by inhibiting gastric acid secretion, gastric emptying and postprandial GLUCAGON secretion. Islet amyloid polypeptide can fold into AMYLOID FIBRILS that have been found as a major constituent of pancreatic AMYLOID DEPOSITS.
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