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Dual-mycorrhizal plants are capable of associating with fungi that form characteristic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EM) structures. Here we address the following questions: i) how many dual-mycorrhizal plant species are there?; ii) what are the advantages for a plant to host two, rather than one, mycorrhizal types?; iii) which factors can provoke shifts in mycorrhizal dominance (i.e. mycorrhizal switching)? We identify a large number (89 genera within 32 families) of confirmed dual-mycorrhizal plants based on observing arbuscules or coils for AM status; and Hartig net or similar structures for EM status within the same plant species. We then review the possible nutritional benefits and discuss the possible mechanisms leading to net costs and benefits. Cost and benefits of dual-mycorrhizal status appear to be context dependent, particularly with respect to the life stage of the host plant. Mycorrhizal switching occurs under a wide range of abiotic and biotic factors, including soil moisture and nutrient status. The relevance of dual-mycorrhizal plants in the ecological restoration of adverse sites where plants are not carbon limited is discussed. We conclude that dual-mycorrhizal plants are underutilised in ecophysiological-based experiments, yet are powerful model plant-fungal systems to better understand mycorrhizal symbioses without confounding host effects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The New phytologist
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Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES.
A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES and is primarily localized to the CYTOSOL.
A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES and is primarily localized to the CELL NUCLEUS.
Research using processes by which the reliability and relevance of a procedure for a specific purpose are established.