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Smoking is the most important risk factor for peripheral arterial occlusive disease (paod). Smoking cessation is and remains the gold standard in the secondary prevention recommendation. E-cigarettes/tobacco heaters are recommended for smokers who are unable to stop smoking or who do not want it. According to the recommendation of the German Society of Addiction, switching to e-cigarettes/tobacco heaters in this group of smokers, who are not accessible for smoking cessation strategies, can achieve a more than 90 % reduction of pollutant exposure. However, physicians who treat vascular patients in Germany lack fundamental knowledge about the variety of e-cigarettes/tobacco heaters, their handling and their emissions. Therefore, an open and professional discussion among cardiologists, angiologists and vascular surgeons on smoking cessation and harm reduction is necessary.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
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The SMOKING of CIGARETTES.
The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.
Electronic devices that are designed to provide NICOTINE in the form of an inhaled aerosol. They typically are made in the shape of CIGARETTES in order to simulate the experience of CIGARETTE SMOKING.
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Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.
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