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Pulmonary Embolism.

08:00 EDT 1st September 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Pulmonary Embolism."

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life-threatening disease and the third most frequent cardiovascular cause of death after stroke and myocardial infarction. The annual incidence is increasing. The individual risk for PE-related complications and death increases with the number of comorbidities and severity of right ventricular dysfunction. Using clinical, laboratory and imaging parameters, patients with PE can be stratified to four risk classes (high, intermediate-high, intermediate-low and low risk). This risk stratification has concrete therapeutic consequences ranging from out-of-hospital treatment of low-risk patients to reperfusion treatment of (intermediate-) high-risk patients. For haemodynamically unstable patients, a treatment decision should preferable be made in interdisciplinary "Pulmonary Embolism Response Teams" (PERT). Being comparably efficient and due to a preferable safety profile compared to vitamin-K antagonists (VKAs), non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are increasingly considered to be the treatment of choice for initial and prolonged anticoagulation of patients with pulmonary embolism. The use of low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) is recommended for PE patients with cancer; however, recent studies indicate that treatment with factor Xa-inhibitors may be effective and safe (in patients without gastrointestinal cancer). Only prolonged anticoagulation (in reduced dosage) will ensure reduction of VTE recurrence and thus should be considered for all patients with unprovoked events.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
ISSN: 1439-4413
Pages: 1286-1300

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Hypertrophy and dilation of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart that is caused by PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. This condition is often associated with pulmonary parenchymal or vascular diseases, such as CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE and PULMONARY EMBOLISM.

Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.

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Respiratory syndrome characterized by the appearance of a new pulmonary infiltrate on chest x-ray, accompanied by symptoms of fever, cough, chest pain, tachypnea, or DYSPNEA, often seen in patients with SICKLE CELL ANEMIA. Multiple factors (e.g., infection, and pulmonary FAT EMBOLISM) may contribute to the development of the syndrome.

Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.

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