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The present study evaluated the protective effects of pseurotin A against inflammation and the destruction of cartilage in a rat model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA was induced by intradermal injections of Freund's complete adjuvant (1 mg/mL), and the treatment with pseurotin A (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered over 1 week. The effects of pseurotin A were assessed by estimating hind paw volume (HPV) and determining the levels of inflammatory mediators in the serum and synovial fluid of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA)-induced RA rats. Western blot and histopathological assays were performed to assess changes in synovial tissues. Additionally, in vitro analyses of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa-Β ligand (RANKL)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells treated with pseurotin A at different concentrations (1, 10, and 100 µg/mL) were conducted to assess the effects of pseurotin A on apoptosis ratio, real-time polymerase chain reaction data, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Compared to the RA group, treatment with pseurotin A significantly decreased HPV and reduced the levels of inflammatory mediators in the synovial fluid and blood. Additionally, pseurotin A ameliorated the protein expressions of osteoprotegerin, nuclear factor of activated T-cells, nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB), IκBα, extracellular signal regulated kinase, and P38 as well as histopathological changes in the synovial tissue of CIA-induced RA rats. The in vitro findings revealed that pseurotin A treatment did not alter the apoptosis ratio in RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells but significantly reduced the mRNA expressions of calcitonin receptor, NF-κB, and matrix metallopeptidase-9. The present findings suggest that pseurotin A ameliorated the differentiation of osteoclasts and the destruction of cartilage in RA rats via regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/RANKL/NF-kB pathway.
This article was published in the following journal.
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A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
Specialized clothing or equipment worn for protection against health hazards. Personal Protective Equipment may include MASKS; RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES; HEAD PROTECTIVE DEVICES; EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES; EAR PROTECTIVE DEVICES; PROTECTIVE CLOTHING; and protective footwear.
A growth differentiation factor that is secreted in response to cell stress and in response to MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION. In addition growth differentiation factor 15 demonstrates a diverse array of biological properties including the induction of cartilage formation, the inhibition of hematopoietic progenitor proliferation, and the induction of neuronal migration.
A type of CARTILAGE characterized by a homogenous amorphous matrix containing predominately TYPE II COLLAGEN and ground substance. Hyaline cartilage is found in ARTICULAR CARTILAGE; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; and the NASAL SEPTUM.
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
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