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Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and opioid systems play a crucial role in the neural modulation of innate fear organised by the inferior colliculus (IC). In addition, the IC is rich in GABAergic fibres and opioid neurons, which are also connected to other mesencephalic structures, such as the superior colliculus and the substantia nigra. However, the contribution of distinct opioid receptors (ORs) in the IC during the elaboration and expression of innate fear and panic-like responses is unclear. The purpose of the present work was to investigate a possible integrated action exerted by ORs and the GABAA receptor-mediated system in the IC on panic-like responses.
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A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Delta opioid receptors bind endorphins and enkephalins with approximately equal affinity and have less affinity for dynorphins.
A class of opioid peptides including dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and smaller fragments of these peptides. Dynorphins prefer kappa-opioid receptors (RECEPTORS, OPIOID, KAPPA) and have been shown to play a role as central nervous system transmitters.
A narcotic used as a pain medication. It appears to be an agonist at kappa opioid receptors and an antagonist or partial agonist at mu opioid receptors.
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