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Broadband Human Body Communication (HBC) enables energy efficient communication between body area network devices by utilizing the electrical conductivity property of the human body. However, environmental interference remains a primary bottleneck in its implementation. An integrating front-end receiver with resettable integration followed by periodic sampling can be utilized to enable interference robust broadband HBC. However, as required in all broadband communication systems, a Clock Data Recovery (CDR) loop is necessary to correctly sample the received data at the appropriate instant. The CDR is required to be sensitive to the clock-data phase mismatch at the receiver end and take corrective action for reducing it, similar to the CDR of a traditional receiver. In addition to that, the CDR for a broadband HBC receiver also requires to be tolerant to environmental interference. This paper analyzes the traditional Baud Rate CDR for an integrating front-end receiver and proposes a modified integrating CDR architecture with a higher update rate. Simulation results show 2.5X higher clock data frequency offset tolerance of the proposed CDR compared to the traditional Baud Rate CDR, >1.25X higher clock data frequency offset tolerance in presence of interference and >10% interference frequency offset tolerance with respect to the integration clock. The proposed CDR is also implemented in a Xilinx Spartan-3E FPGA board to validate its closed loop functionality in real time.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: IEEE transactions on biomedical circuits and systems
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Environment un-modified by human activity. Areas in which natural processes operate without human interference.
The human being as a non-anatomical and non-zoological entity. The emphasis is on the philosophical or artistic treatment of the human being, and includes lay and social attitudes toward the body in history. (From J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
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Hearing loss due to interference with the mechanical reception or amplification of sound to the COCHLEA. The interference is in the outer or middle ear involving the EAR CANAL; TYMPANIC MEMBRANE; or EAR OSSICLES.
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