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During HIFU therapy it is important that the electrical power delivered to the transducer is monitored to avoid under or over exposure, ensure patient safety and to protect the transducer itself. Due to ease of measurement, the transducer's potential difference may be as an indicator of power delivery. However, even when a transducer's complex impedance is well characterised at small amplitudes and matching networks are used, voltage-only (VO) monitoring cannot account for the presence of drive waveform distortion, changes to the acoustic path or damage to the transducer. In this study, combined current and voltage (CCV) is proposed as an MRI-compatible, miniature alternative to bi-directional power couplers that is compatible with switched amplifiers. For CCV power measurement, current probe data was multiplied by the voltage waveform and integrated in the frequency domain. Transducer efficiency was taken into account to predict acoustic power. The technique was validated with a radiation force balance (RFB). When using a typical HIFU transducer and amplifier, VO predictions and acoustic power had a maximum difference of 20%. However, under the same conditions, CCV only had a maximum difference of 5%. The technique was applied to several lesioning experiments and it was shown that when VO was used as a control between two amplifiers there was up to a 38% difference in lesion area. This greatly reduced to a maximum of 5% once CCV was used instead. These results demonstrate that CCV can accurately predict real-time electrical power delivery leading to safer HIFU treatments.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: IEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control
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