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Long-term frequency instabilities in vapor-cell clocks mainly arise from fluctuations of the experimental and environmental parameters that are converted to clock frequency fluctuations via various physical processes. Here, we discuss the frequency sensitivities and the resulting stability limitations at one day timescale for a rubidium vapor-cell clock based on a compact magnetron-type cavity operated in air (no vacuum environment). Under ambient laboratory conditions, the external atmospheric pressure fluctuations may dominantly limit the clock stability via the barometric effect. We establish a complete long-term instability budget for our clock operated under stable pressure conditions. Where possible, the fluctuations of experimental parameters are measured via the atomic response. The measured clock instability of < 2·E10.14 at one day is limited by the intensity light-shift effect, which could further be reduced by active stabilization of the laser intensity or stronger optical pumping. The analyses reported here show the way towards simple, compact, and low-power vapor-cell atomic clocks with excellent long-term stabilities. ≤ 10.14 at one day when operated in ambient laboratory conditions.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: IEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control
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