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Phenolic wastewater containing phenol and 4-chlorophenol pose a risk to the environment and to human health. Treating them using chemical-biological coupling method is challenging. In this study, manganese oxidizing bacteria (MnOB) were enriched in moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) using synthetic phenol wastewater (800 mg L) to facilitate in situ production of biogenic manganese oxides (BioMnOx) after 90 days of operation. Then, 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) was added to the MBBR to simulate mixed phenolic wastewater. Comparing the MBBR (R1) without feeding Mn(II) and the MBBR with BioMnOx (R2) production, R2 exhibited robust phenol and 4-CP removal performance. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was employed to determine the microbial community. Subsequently, a batch experiment demonstrated that partly purified BioMnOx does not exhibits a capacity for phenol removal, but can efficiently remove 4-CP. Interestingly, 5-chloro-2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde was found in the products of 4-CP degradation, which was the unique product of 4-CP degradation by catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O). In both reactors, only catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O) activity from microbes can be detected, indicating that the existence of BioMnOx provide an alternative pathway in addition to microbe driven 4-CP degradation. Overall, MBBR based MnOB enrichment under high phenol concentration was achieved, and 4-CP/phenol removal can be accelerated by in situ-formed BioMnOx. Considering the C23O-like activity of BioMnOx, our results suggest a new coupling strategy that involves nanomaterials and a microbial consortium.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Water research
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