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Autophagy: A novel mechanism of chemoresistance in cancers.

08:00 EDT 9th September 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Autophagy: A novel mechanism of chemoresistance in cancers."

The success of targeted drug therapy for cancer patients has attracted extensive attention from academia and society. However, the rapid development of acquired drug resistance is becoming a major challenge. Autophagy, as an essential homeostatic and catabolic process, is crucial for the degradation or recycling of proteins and cellular components. Autophagy has a crucial role in several cellular functions and its dysregulation is associated with tumorigenesis, tumor-stroma interactions, and resistance to cancer therapy. A growing body of evidence shows that in multiple types of cancer, autophagy is also a key regulator in the tumor microenvironment and the cellular drug response. However, our understanding of the process of autophagy remains incompletely. In this review, we identify the role of autophagy and describe recent advances in the identification of the mechanism by which autophagy is implicated in drug resistance, with a focus on the mode of action, and validation as potential therapeutics.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie
ISSN: 1950-6007
Pages: 109415

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Proteins and enzymes that function, often as components of MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES, to assemble AUTOPHAGOSOMES and carry out AUTOPHAGY.

An autophagy related protein that is similar to UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYME E1. It functions in CYTOPLASM to VACUOLE transport (Cvt) and AUTOPHAGY by activating ATG12 PROTEIN for its conjugation with ATG5 PROTEIN, as well as the conjugation of ATG8 FAMILY PROTEINS with phosphatidylethanolamine for ATG8 association to Cvt vesicles and AUTOPHAGOSOME membranes. It is also required for the nitrogen starvation response in yeast, MITOPHAGY; and autophagic cell death induced by CASPASE 8 inhibition.

A serine/threonine-protein kinase that functions in AUTOPHAGY in response to starvation. It acts on the PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE complex PIK3C3 to regulate AUTOPHAGOSOME formation. It also functions as both a downstream effector and negative regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and is activated by AMPK, which it also negatively regulates.

An autophagy related protein which functions as a core subunit of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES. It mediates the formation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and functions in AUTOPHAGY, where it is required for maturation of the AUTOPHAGOSOME. It also functions in ENDOCYTOSIS and CYTOKINESIS as part of a separate complex. Beclin-1 associates with INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES and interacts with the PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-BCL-2 and BCL-X PROTEIN.

An autophagy-related protein that functions in AUTOPHAGOSOME biogenesis. It is conjugated to the ATG12 PROTEIN via a process that is similar to UBIQUITINATION and involves the ATG7 PROTEIN and ATG10 enzyme. The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate acts as an E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE-like enzyme and is required for the localization of ATG8 PROTEINS to AUTOPHAGOSOME vesicle membranes and modification of membrane lipids.

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