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The success of targeted drug therapy for cancer patients has attracted extensive attention from academia and society. However, the rapid development of acquired drug resistance is becoming a major challenge. Autophagy, as an essential homeostatic and catabolic process, is crucial for the degradation or recycling of proteins and cellular components. Autophagy has a crucial role in several cellular functions and its dysregulation is associated with tumorigenesis, tumor-stroma interactions, and resistance to cancer therapy. A growing body of evidence shows that in multiple types of cancer, autophagy is also a key regulator in the tumor microenvironment and the cellular drug response. However, our understanding of the process of autophagy remains incompletely. In this review, we identify the role of autophagy and describe recent advances in the identification of the mechanism by which autophagy is implicated in drug resistance, with a focus on the mode of action, and validation as potential therapeutics.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie
Intraperitoneal dissemination of ovarian cancers is preceded by the development of chemoresistant tumors with malignant ascites. Despite the high levels of chemoresistance and relapse observed in ovar...
Gallbladder cancer is the most common biliary tract malignancy and not sensitive to chemotherapy. Autophagy is an important factor prolonging the survival of cancer cells under chemotherapeutic stress...
Non-melanotic cutaneous cancers and melanoma are the main common type skin cancers worldwide, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma were most serious and high aggressive. Despite many therape...
Chemoresistance is the major cause of neoadjuvant treatment failure in breast cancer patients. Despite recent progress, the mechanism underlying chemoresistance remains to be further defined.
Gastric cancer (GC) ranks the fifth most common cancer, and chemotherapy is one of the most common treatments for GC. However, chemoresistance limits the effectiveness of chemotherapy and leads to tre...
Autophagy is recognized as a central mechanism for the regulation of aging. . Osteoporosis (OA) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two forms of pathological aging, sometimes entangled, inclu...
The exact mechanism of impairment of autophagy in vitiligo has not yet been determined.
The molecular mechanisms contributing to the development of aortic aneurysmal disease are poorly characterized making actual therapies not sufficient. Autophagy is an intracellular mechani...
One recent study demonstrated impaired autophagy in patients receiving hemodialysis (HD). To clarify whether this alteration is related to the inflammatory state in HD patients, we focused...
To investigate the effects of different dietary regimens on muscle wasting, insulin/IGF-1 resistance. Further, to explore whether LPD+KA decrease the activation of autophagy associate with...
Proteins and enzymes that function, often as components of MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES, to assemble AUTOPHAGOSOMES and carry out AUTOPHAGY.
An autophagy related protein that is similar to UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYME E1. It functions in CYTOPLASM to VACUOLE transport (Cvt) and AUTOPHAGY by activating ATG12 PROTEIN for its conjugation with ATG5 PROTEIN, as well as the conjugation of ATG8 FAMILY PROTEINS with phosphatidylethanolamine for ATG8 association to Cvt vesicles and AUTOPHAGOSOME membranes. It is also required for the nitrogen starvation response in yeast, MITOPHAGY; and autophagic cell death induced by CASPASE 8 inhibition.
A serine/threonine-protein kinase that functions in AUTOPHAGY in response to starvation. It acts on the PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE complex PIK3C3 to regulate AUTOPHAGOSOME formation. It also functions as both a downstream effector and negative regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and is activated by AMPK, which it also negatively regulates.
An autophagy related protein which functions as a core subunit of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES. It mediates the formation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and functions in AUTOPHAGY, where it is required for maturation of the AUTOPHAGOSOME. It also functions in ENDOCYTOSIS and CYTOKINESIS as part of a separate complex. Beclin-1 associates with INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES and interacts with the PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-BCL-2 and BCL-X PROTEIN.
An autophagy-related protein that functions in AUTOPHAGOSOME biogenesis. It is conjugated to the ATG12 PROTEIN via a process that is similar to UBIQUITINATION and involves the ATG7 PROTEIN and ATG10 enzyme. The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate acts as an E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE-like enzyme and is required for the localization of ATG8 PROTEINS to AUTOPHAGOSOME vesicle membranes and modification of membrane lipids.
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing as well as dispensing drugs and medicines. It is a health profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. The scope of...
Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start - for example, cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer; cancer th...
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...