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This mini-review focuses on leishmanicidal drugs that were sourced from small molecules previously approved for other diseases. The mechanisms of action of these molecules are herein explored, to probe the origins of their inter-species growth inhibitory activities. It is shown how the transversal action of the azoles - fluconazole, posaconazole and itraconazole - in both fungi and Leishmania is due to the occurrence of the same target, lanosterol 14-α-demethylase, in these two groups of species. In turn, the drugs miltefosine and amphotericin B are presented as truly multi-target agents, acting on small molecules, proteins, genes and even organelles. Steps towards future leishmanicidal drug candidates based on the multi-target strategy and on drug repurposing are also briefly presented.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: European journal of medicinal chemistry
Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected parasitic disease with no vaccine available and its pharmacological treatment is reduced to a limited number of unsafe drugs. The scarce readiness of new antileis...
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Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
A broad category of multi-ingredient preparations that are marketed for the relief of upper respiratory symptoms resulting from the COMMON COLD; ALLERGIES; or HUMAN INFLUENZA. While the majority of these medications are available as OVER-THE-COUNTER DRUGS some of them contain ingredients that require them to be sold as PRESCRIPTION DRUGS or as BEHIND-THE COUNTER DRUGS.
A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).
Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.
Tailored macromolecules harboring covalently-bound biologically active modules that target specific tissues and cells. The active modules or functional groups can include drugs, prodrugs, antibodies, and oligonucleotides, which can act synergistically and be multitargeting.
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