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Increasing heat in urban areas raises heat-related health risks. Green infrastructure and managing surface albedo can reduce the radiation exposure of pedestrians. However, selecting options among various radiant fluxes mitigation strategies is challenging, particularly due to potential interactions among options such as planting vegetation or changing surface albedos. We used a multi-strategies model for determining optimal design combinations for reducing mean radiant temperature (MRT) in urban environments across a range of costs and benefits. The solutions are developed by a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) with a MRT simulator. We selected four MRT reduction strategies: tree planting, grass planting, albedo reduction of building walls, and albedo reduction of sidewalks. Model test results for a simulated street canyon show a wide range of optimal alternative plans considering the combination effects of the four strategies. While previous studies have focused on single options to reduce heat load, we found benefits were higher by using a combination of these strategies, which can provide synergistic benefits. These results provide useful information for decision makers confronting real world problems such as heat related mortality. Thermal-friendly design methods and green infrastructure will help the urban environment become sustainable and improve human health and well-being.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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"Treating cold syndrome with hot herbs & treating heat syndrome with cold herbs" is a fundamental medication principle of Chinese medicine. Scientists have been working hard to explore the scientific ...
To investigate the influence of curing distance on the degree of conversion (DC) of a resin-based composite (RBC) when similar radiant exposure was achieved using six different light-curing units (LCU...
The purpose of this study is to examine the need for reflective heat shield covers over the temperature probes applied to the skin of newborn babies who are being nursed under a radiant wa...
The purpose of this study is to compare three radiant warmer beds that contain different computer heating software and different bed styles. Radiant warmers are used in many neonatal inten...
Does polyethylene occlusive wrap applied immediately after delivery to infants born at less than 28 weeks gestation decrease all-cause mortality measured at discharge compared with the sta...
In Quebec, thousands of workers are concomitantly exposed to heat and chemical compounds. Exposure to heat induces physiological responses that help maintaining a stable body temperature. ...
There is growing evidence to conclude that part of the cascade leading to heatstroke is related to an inflammatory reaction triggered by the heat stress. The reduced ability to sustain hea...
Strategies required by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 when a question exists as to whether the benefits of a drug outweigh its risks. These constitute a safety plan with several potential components, including a medication guide, a communication plan, elements to ensure safe use and an implementation system to help guide the prescribers, pharmacists and patients.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Heat and cold stress-inducible, transcription factors that bind to inverted 5'-NGAAN-3' pentamer DNA sequences and are regulated by poly(ADP) ribosylation. They play essential roles as transcriptional activators of the HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE by inducing expression of large classes of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES and heat-shock proteins. They also function in DNA REPAIR; transcriptional reactivation of latent HIV-1; and pre-mRNA processing and nuclear export of HSP70 HEAT-SHOCK PROTEINS during heat stress.
A family of heat-shock proteins that contain a 70 amino-acid consensus sequence known as the J domain. The J domain of HSP40 heat shock proteins interacts with HSP70 HEAT-SHOCK PROTEINS. HSP40 heat-shock proteins play a role in regulating the ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATASES activity of HSP70 heat-shock proteins.