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Climate change and pollution are two of the main environmental problems living organisms currently face. Temperature can modify a toxicant's effects and the organism's response to it. Global warming is expected to increase the temperature of freshwater ecosystems. In this work, we analyzed the effect of a mild temperature increase on the acute response of the aquatic larvae Chironomus riparius to the ultraviolet filter benzophenone-3 (BP3). This substance is commonly used in sunscreens and other commercial products and can reach the environment in different ways. We exposed larvae to BP3 at 18.5 or 23 °C for 8 or 24 h and analyzed the acute response at the molecular level. By quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR), we studied altered messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of genes related to the endocrine system (EcR, InR and Met), detoxification mechanisms (Cyp4d2, Cyp6b7, GST d6, GST o1 and MRP-1) and stress response (Hsp22, Hsp27, Hsp70, HYOU and Gp93). Moreover, enzyme activity was evaluated, with a focus on glutathione-S-transferase (GST), phenoloxidase (PO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Results showed that temperature affected the acute response of this organism by modifying the expression of EcR, Cyp6b7, GST d6, GST o1, MRP-1, Hsp22, Hsp27 and Hsp70 genes. These results suggest that even mild temperature change can affect the response of this organism to BP3 influencing short-term progress of the population. Although longer exposures are required to determine the ability of C. riparius to manage the pollutants in this novel environmental conditions, in order to know the possible mechanisms of detoxification or adaptation that may develop. This research represents a first step in the analysis of multi-stress response in this animal, and opens new possibilities in the toxicity evaluation of this organism in line with the real scenario that organisms face today.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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The effects on gene expression that depend on the location of a gene with respect to its neighboring genes and region of chromosome. Stable position effects are sequence dependent. Variegated position effects depend on whether the gene is located in or adjacent to HETEROCHROMATIN or EUCHROMATIN.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Techniques used to add in exogenous gene sequence such as mutated genes; REPORTER GENES, to study mechanisms of gene expression; or regulatory control sequences, to study effects of temporal changes to GENE EXPRESSION.
The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.
The expression of a gene in an abnormal place, or at an abnormal time in an organism. Ectopic Gene Expression is often induced artificially by genetic techniques.
The process of gene expression is used by eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-tran...
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) uses the ability of DNA polymerase (enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. These enzymes are essential to DNA replication and usually work in pairs to create two ident...