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Plastic litters have become the predominant components of marine debris due to extensive consumption plastics and mismanagement of plastic wastes. As part of the problem, microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) have generated special concerns due to their unique features that make them easy to transfer among oceans in the marine ecosystem, across different trophic levels inside the food web, and even across different tissues inside contaminated animals. Studies have demonstrated the almost omnipresence of MPs in the marine ecosystem, which present serious threats to the health of marine animals, causing symptoms such as malnutrition, inflammation, chemical poisoning, growth thwarting, decrease of fecundity, and death due to damages at individual, organ, tissue, cell, and molecule levels. The information on NPs in the marine ecosystem has been scarce due to the challenges in sampling and detecting these nano-scaled entities. In vitro and in vivo experiments have demonstrated that NPs have the potential to penetrate different biological barriers including the gastrointestinal barrier and the brain blood barrier and have been detected in many important organs such as brains, the circulation system and livers of sampled animals.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
Micro(nano)plastics, new emerging contaminants, are ubiquitously found in the environment due to continuous release and accumulation. Widespread micro(nano)plastics can increase their exposure to orga...
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The study of aquatic life inhabiting bodies of water, including growth, morphology, physiology, genetics, distribution, and interactions with other organisms and the environment. It includes MARINE HYDROBIOLOGY.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are common in the marine environment and on the surfaces and in the intestinal contents of marine animals. Some species are bioluminescent and are found as symbionts in specialized luminous organs of fish.
Materials incorporated mechanically in plastics (usually PVC) to increase flexibility, workability or distensibility; due to the non-chemical inclusion, plasticizers leach out from the plastic and are found in body fluids and the general environment.
The probability distribution associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes; used to model cumulative incidence rates and prevalence rates. The Bernoulli distribution is a special case of binomial distribution.
Process by which micro-organisms adapt quickly to a preferred rapidly-metabolizable intermediate through the inhibition or repression of genes related to CATABOLISM of less preferred source(s).
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...