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An activated sludge sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used to treat divalent cadmium (Cd(II)) wastewater for 60 d to investigate the overall treatment performance, evolution of the bacterial community, and abundance of the Cd(II) resistance gene CzcA and shifts in its potential host bacteria. During stable operation with a Cd(II) concentration of 20 mg/L, the average removal efficiencies of Cd(II) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were more than 85% and that of total phosphorus was greater than 70%, while the total nitrogen (TN) was only about 45%. The protein (PN) content in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) increased significantly after Cd(II) addition, while polysaccharides displayed a decreasing trend (p < 0.05), indicating that EPS prefer to release PN to adsorb Cd(II) and protect bacteria from damage. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectral analysis showed that fulvic acid-like substances were the most abundant chemical components of EPS. The addition of Cd(II) adversely affected most denitrifying bacteria (p < 0.05), which is consistent with the low TN removal. In addition, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that CzcA gene abundance decreased as the Cd(II) concentration increased, possibly because expression of the CzcA gene was inhibited by Cd(II) stress. The majority of CzcA gene sequences were carried by Pseudomonas, making it the dominant genus among Cd(II)-resistant bacteria.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of environmental management
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The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The process by which the V (variable), D (diversity), and J (joining) segments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES or T-CELL RECEPTOR GENES are assembled during the development of LYMPHOID CELLS using NONHOMOLOGOUS DNA END-JOINING.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
DNA sequences, in cells of the T-lymphocyte lineage, that code for T-cell receptors. The TcR genes are formed by somatic rearrangement (see GENE REARRANGEMENT, T-LYMPHOCYTE and its children) of germline gene segments, and resemble Ig genes in their mechanisms of diversity generation and expression.
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