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Glass molding assisted by ultrasonic vibration is a promising yet challenging technique for microoptics fabrication. During glass molding localized high temperatures (300-600 °C) often result in transformed eigenfrequencies of the ultrasonic horn, and hence decreased electroacoustic efficiencies of the ultrasonic system. This study proposes a systematic methodology to optimally tune the objective eigenfrequency of the horn at elevated temperatures. Theoretical and numerical analyses are first performed to characterize the thermally disturbed modal characteristics of the horn. Numerical results indicate that the longitudinal eigenfrequency of the horn decreases significantly with the increasing molding temperature T. To compensate for this eigenfrequency decrease, numerical size optimization is then conducted and a two-segment cylindrical horn with an optimized tool (68.62 mm in length) is obtained. In situ eigenfrequency measurements of the optimized horn are further implemented at varying molding temperatures. Experimental results suggest that the tuned eigenfrequencies of the optimized Ti-6Al-4V horn are within the prescribed frequency-tracking range (35 ± 0.5 kHz) over a wide range of molding temperatures (226-641 °C). Thus, by merely pre-adjusting the theoretical eigenlength of the horn, a well-tuned and adaptable high-temperature ultrasonic vibration system can be effectively developed. In addition to glass molding, the proposed methodology applies to design and optimization of ultrasonic horns for diverse thermally involved processes.
This article was published in the following journal.
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Neurons in the posterior (dorsal) horn of the spinal cord whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the central nervous system. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the white matter ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.
Motor neurons in the anterior (ventral) horn of the spinal cord which project to skeletal muscles.
A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family CARNOBACTERIACEAE. They are tolerant to freezing/thawing and high pressure and able to grow at low temperatures.