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Since human left Africa about 100 thousand years ago, they experienced numerous environmental as well as social transitions. During these transitions, their genome too experiences various forms of selective pressure and retained favorable advantageous alleles in their genome by either positive selection or balancing selection, while removing deleterious alleles through purifying selection. However, when an individual with certain advantageous genetic diversity is migrated to new contrasting environment or lifestyle, the advantageous genetic diversity becomes disadvantageous and finally causing maladaptation. Thus, understanding the role of evolution in adaptation and also in the regulation of population dynamics, is highly important for identifying naturally occurring advantageous or disease risk allele in contemporary populations. Recent advancements in high-throughput sequence technologies have made it easier for understanding the impact of evolutionary forces on the genetic make-up of human in different environmental and social conditions in a far better way. Statistical tests described in this review will enable reader to identify various signatures of balancing selection in different time scales in a more comprehensive way. Additionally, these tests will also help in identifying naturally occurring advantageous or disease risk alleles with applications in animal breeding, nature conservation and human medicine.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Zoology (Jena, Germany)
Ectotherm development rates often show adaptive divergence along climatic gradients, but the genetic basis for this variation is rarely studied. Here, we investigated the genetic basis for phenotypic ...
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This is a study of the genetic basis of brain dysfunction in people with schizophrenia.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The caring for individuals in institutions and their adaptation to routines characteristic of the institutional environment, and/or their loss of adaptation to life outside the institution.
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is EVOLUTION.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...