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The use of antibacterial drugs is very common in critically ill patients and beta-lactam agents are widely used in this context. Critically ill patients show several characteristics (e.g., sepsis, renal impairment or conversely augmented renal clearance, renal replacement therapy) that may alter beta-lactam pharmacokinetics (PK) in comparison with non-critically ill patients. This narrative literature review aims to identify recent studies quantifying the variability of beta-lactams volume of distribution and clearance and to determine its main determinants. Seventy studies published between 2000 and 2018 were retained. Data on volume of distribution and clearance variability were reported for 5 penicillins, 3 beta-lactamase inhibitors, 6 cephalosporins and 4 carbapenems. Data confirm specific changes in PK parameters and important variability of beta-lactam PK in critically ill patients. Renal function, body weight and use of renal replacement therapy are the principal factors influencing PK parameters described in this population. Few studies have directly compared beta-lactam PK in critically ill versus non-critically ill patients. Conclusions are also limited by small study size and sparse PK data in several studies. These results suggest approaches to assess this PK variability in clinical practice. Beta-lactam therapeutic drug monitoring seems to be the best way to deal with this issue.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine
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LACTAMS forming compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-3 dozen atoms.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.
Review of the medical necessity of hospital or other health facility admissions, upon or within a short time following an admission, and periodic review of services provided during the course of treatment.
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