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Trichosporon asahii has recently been recognized as an emergent fungal pathogen able to cause invasive infections in neutropenic cancer patients as well as in critically ill patients submitted to invasive medical procedures and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. T. asahii is the main pathogen associated with invasive trichosporonosis worldwide. Treatment of patients with invasive trichosporonosis remains a controversial issue, but triazoles are mentioned by most authors as the best first-line antifungal therapy. There is mounting evidence supporting the claim that fluconazole (FLC) resistance in T. asahii is emerging worldwide. Since 2000, 15 publications involving large collections of T. asahii isolates described non-wild type isolates for FLC and/or voriconazole. However, very few papers have addressed the epidemiology and molecular mechanism of antifungal resistance in Trichosporon spp. Data available suggest that continuous exposure to azoles can induce mutations in the ERG11 gene, resulting in resistance to this class of antifungal drugs. A recent report characterizing T. asahii azole-resistant strains found several genes differentially expressed and highly mutated, including genes related to the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway, indicating that evolutionary modifications on this pathway induced by FLC stress may be involved in developing azole resistance. Finally, we provided new data suggesting that hyperactive efflux pumps may play a role as drug transporters in FLC resistant T. asahii strains.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B
Trichosporon asahii is an emerging cause of systemic fungal infection in an immunocompromised host. Several life threatening disseminated T. asahii infection in single solid organ (liver or kidney) tr...
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