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Low molecular mass penicillin binding proteins (LMM PBP) are bacterial enzymes involved in the final steps of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. In Escherichia coli, most LMM PBP exhibit dd-carboxypeptidase activity, are not essential for growth in routine laboratory media, and contributions to virulent phenotypes remain largely unknown. The Francisella tularensis Schu S4 genome harbors the dacD gene (FTT_1029), which encodes a LMM PBP with homology to PBP6b of E. coli. Disruption of this locus in the fully virulent Schu S4 strain resulted in a mutant that could not grow in Chamberlain's Defined Medium and exhibited severe morphological defects. Further characterization studies demonstrated that the growth defects of the dacD mutant were pH-dependent, and could be partially restored by growth at neutral pH or fully restored by genetic complementation. Infection of murine macrophage-like cells showed that the Schu S4 dacD mutant is capable of intracellular replication. However, this mutant was attenuated in BALB/c mice following intranasal challenge (LD = 603 CFU) as compared to mice challenged with the parent (LD = 1 CFU) or complemented strain (LD = 1 CFU). Additionally, mice that survived infection with the dacD mutant showed significant protection against subsequent challenge with the parent strain. Collectively, these results indicate that the DacD protein of F. tularensis is essential for growth in low pH environments and virulence in vivo. These results also suggest that a PBP mutant could serve as the basis of a novel, live attenuated vaccine strain.
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Name: Microbial pathogenesis
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A carboxypeptidase that is specific for proteins that contain two ALANINE residues on their C-terminal. Enzymes in this class play an important role in bacterial CELL WALL biosynthesis.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.
A metallocarboxypeptidase that removes C-terminal lysine and arginine from biologically active peptides and proteins thereby regulating their activity. It is a zinc enzyme with no preference shown for lysine over arginine. Pro-carboxypeptidase U in human plasma is activated by thrombin or plasmin during clotting to form the unstable carboxypeptidase U.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 126.96.36.199.
A ZINC-dependent carboxypeptidase primary found in the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. The enzyme catalyzes the preferential cleavage of a C-terminal peptidyl-L-lysine or arginine. It was formerly classified as EC 188.8.131.52 and EC 184.108.40.206.
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