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Supercritical Emulsion Extraction (SEE) and Supercritical assisted Liposome formation (SuperLip), use dense gases such as carbon dioxide (dCO) to fabricate advanced micro/nanocarriers. SEE uses dCO to extract solvent from the oily phase of an emulsion and obtain biopolymer microbead; For this study, poly-Lactic Acid (PLA) microbeads of 1±0.2 μm in mean size loaded at 1 µg/mg with Rhodamine B (ROD) were prepared by SEE; the beads showed a solvent residue lower than 10 ppm and encapsulated the fluorocrome with an efficiency of 90%. SuperLip uses dCO2 to enhance lipid/ethanol/water mixing and to promote the ethanol extraction from liposome suspension. In this case, phosphatidyl-choline (PC) vesicles with a mean size of 0.2±0.05 μm and loaded with Fluorescein Iso-ThioCyanate (FITC) at 8 µg/mg were prepared; small unilamellar structure was observed for all the vesicles with FITC encapsulation efficiency of 80%. Ethanol residue of 50 ppm was measured in all the liposome suspensions. The bioavailability of microbeads and nanoliposomes was assessed through incubation with human monocytes previously isolated from healthy donors' blood. A specifically optimized protocol that allowed their quenching on the cell surface was developed to monitor by flow cytometer assay only the cell population that effectively internalized the carriers. When microbeads were tested, the percentage of alive internalizing monocytes was of about 30%. An internalization of 96.1±21% was, instead, obtained at dosage of 0.1 mg/mL for nanoliposomes. In this last case, monocytes showed a vitality of almost 100% after vesicles internalization at all the concentrations studied; on the other hand, cell apoptosis progressively increased in a dose/response manner, after polymer microbeads phagocytosis. The proposed data suggested that dCO technologies can be reliably used to fabricate intracellular carriers.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal of pharmaceutics
End tidal carbon dioxide(ETCO2) is routinely used during elective surgery to monitor ventilation. The role of ETCO2 monitoring in emergent trauma operations is poorly understood. We hypothesized that ...
In this series of articles, the board members of ChemSusChem discuss recent research articles that they consider of exceptional quality and importance for sustainability. This entry features Prof. M. ...
We examined the efficacy of the combined use of L-menthol spraying (L-mentholS) as an antispasmodic agent and carbon dioxide insufflation (CO2I) on the adenoma detection rate (ADR) in a prospective, s...
The poor water solubility and oral bioavailability of many lipophilic polyphenols can be improved through the use of colloidal delivery systems. In this study, a pH-driven method was used to encapsula...
The study employed panel cointegration techniques to investigate the relationship between renewable energy and carbon dioxide emissions for 28 Sub-Sahara African countries spanning the period 1980-201...
We aim to test our method for measuring chemosensitivity (the ventilatory response to a change in carbon dioxide), which uses sinusoidal carbon dioxide stimuli. Hypotheses: - Ca...
Carbon dioxide insufflation during colonoscopy significantly reduces discomfort (pain, bloating and flatulence) after the procedure. So far, it has not been studied in inflammatory bowel d...
The purpose of this study is to determine if blowing carbon dioxide into the surgical field during open-heart surgery to displace retained chest cavity air from the atmosphere will decreas...
Endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) requires a contrast agent to identify the vascular anatomy and placement of the stent graft. Iodine contrast has traditi...
Investigators evaluate the effect of patient position (Trendelenburg and reverse Trendelenburg) on arterial, end-tidal and transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure in patients underg...
An enzyme with high affinity for carbon dioxide. It catalyzes irreversibly the formation of oxaloacetate from phosphoenolpyruvate and carbon dioxide. This fixation of carbon dioxide in several bacteria and some plants is the first step in the biosynthesis of glucose. EC 18.104.22.168.
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 22.214.171.124.
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of an alpha keto acid to an aldehyde and carbon dioxide. Thiamine pyrophosphate is an essential cofactor. In lower organisms, which ferment glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide, the enzyme irreversibly decarboxylates pyruvate to acetaldehyde. EC 126.96.36.199.
A copper protein that catalyzes the formation of 2 moles of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate in the presence of carbon dioxide. It utilizes oxygen instead of carbon dioxide to form 2-phosphoglycollate and 3-phosphoglycerate. EC 188.8.131.52.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and oxaloacetate to ADP, phosphoenolpyruvate, and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in some bacteria, yeast, and Trypanosoma, and is important for the photosynthetic assimilation of carbon dioxide in some plants. EC 184.108.40.206.
An assay is an analytic procedure for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence or amount or the functional activity of a target entity. This can be a drug or biochemical substance or a cell in an organism or organic sample. ...