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USP18 Overexpression Protects against Focal Cerebral Ischemia Injury in Mice by Suppressing Microglial Activation.

08:00 EDT 9th September 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "USP18 Overexpression Protects against Focal Cerebral Ischemia Injury in Mice by Suppressing Microglial Activation."

The activation of inflammatory cytokines following stroke leads to neuron apoptosis and microglial activation, both of which are involved in ischemic brain damages. The ubiquitin-specific protease 18 (USP18) negatively regulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines and suppresses microglial activation. This study aims to determine whether USP18 expression protects against brain damage in ischemic models of stroke. We investigated USP18 expression, overexpression, and knockout under ischemic conditions in vitro and in vivo. Using BV2 microglial cells under oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and 60 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice as models of ischemia, we assessed the infarct volume, the extent of neurogenesis, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and Janus Kinases (JAKs)/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) pathway members. BV2 cells under OGD for 0, 6, 12, or 24 hours exhibited decreased USP18 expression and increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (INF)-γ. Lentiviral overexpression of USP18 in MCAO mice significantly decreased the infarct volume and significantly increased the number of new neurons that coexpressed bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)/ neuronal nuclei (NeuN). Additionally, microglial activation was inhibited, including the suppression of the JAK/STAT pathway and the proinflammatory cytokines expression. In vitro experiments demonstrated that USP18 inhibited BV2 microglial activity and reduced the mRNA and protein levels of NF-κB, JAK1, p-JAK1, STAT1, and p-STAT1 in BV2 microglial cells. USP18 overexpression decreased ischemic brain injury through the suppression of microglial activation by negatively regulating the release of proinflammatory cytokines.

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Name: Neuroscience
ISSN: 1873-7544
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Softening or loss of brain tissue following CEREBRAL INFARCTION; cerebral ischemia (see BRAIN ISCHEMIA), infection, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, or other injury. The term is often used during gross pathologic inspection to describe blurred cortical margins and decreased consistency of brain tissue following infarction. Multicystic encephalomalacia refers to the formation of multiple cystic cavities of various sizes in the cerebral cortex of neonates and infants following injury, most notably perinatal hypoxia-ischemic events. (From Davis et al., Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p665; J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 1995 Mar;54(2):268-75)

A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)

Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.

Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)

A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.

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