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Apelin-13 enhances contextual fear extinction in rats.

08:00 EDT 9th September 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Apelin-13 enhances contextual fear extinction in rats."

Fear extinction is considered as a new learning process that is valid to model features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The neuropeptide apelin, such as apelin-13, apelin-17 and apelin-36, are endogenous ligands of the G-protein coupled receptor APJ. Apelin and its receptor APJ are widely distributed in the central nervous system. Accumulating evidence suggests the critical role of apelin-13 in modulation of learning and memory, however, its specific role in fear extinction remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of apelin-13 administration on contextual fear extinction in rats. The behavioral procedure included four sessions: habitation, conditioning, extinction training and extinction recall. Rats received intracerebroventricular infusion of apelin-13 (3 or 6 μg) 0.5 h prior to the extinction training. Percentage of freezing was utilized to assess the conditioned fear response. Results showed that apelin-13, with the dose of 6 but not 3 μg, significantly decreased freezing response during both extinction training and extinction recall test sessions. Furthermore, apelin-13 did not affect the levels of baseline freezing, locomotor activity and anxiety. The results suggest that apelin-13 dose-dependently enhances contextual fear extinction, and may function as a novel target for treatment of PTSD.

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Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Neuroscience letters
ISSN: 1872-7972
Pages: 134487

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A 77 amino acid secreted endogenous ligand for the angiotensin II receptor-like 1 protein (APELIN RECEPTOR) that is proteolytically cleaved into four smaller peptides: Apelin-36, Apelin-31, Apelin-28, and Apelin-13. It inhibits entry of HIV into cells that express both APJ and CD4 ANTIGEN and is highly expressed in breast milk, where it may modulate the neonatal immune response.

G-protein coupled receptors for APELIN that function in a broad range of physiologic processes including blood pressure regulation and heart contractility. They also have an essential role in early embryo development for GASTRULATION and heart morphogenesis, and can also function as a CD4 co-receptor for HIV-1.

An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.

Mutant strains of rats that produce little or no hair. Several different homozygous recessive mutations can cause hairlessness in rats including rnu/rnu (Rowett nude), fz/fz (fuzzy), shn/shn (shorn), and nznu/nznu (New Zealand nude). Note that while NUDE RATS are often hairless, they are most characteristically athymic.

A trypanosome found in the blood of adult rats and transmitted by the rat flea. It is generally non-pathogenic in adult rats but can cause lethal infection in suckling rats.

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