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Carbohydrate-based nanocarriers and their application to target macrophages and deliver antimicrobial agents.

08:00 EDT 9th September 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Carbohydrate-based nanocarriers and their application to target macrophages and deliver antimicrobial agents."

Many deadly infections are produced by microorganisms capable of sustained survival in macrophages. This reduces exposure to chemotherapy, prevents immune detection, and is akin to criminals hiding in police stations. Therefore, the use of glyco-nanoparticles (GNPs) as carriers of therapeutic agents is a burgeoning field. Such an approach can enhance the penetration of drugs into macrophages with specific carbohydrate targeting molecules on the nanocarrier to interact with macrophage lectins. Carbohydrates are natural biological molecules and the key constituents in a large variety of biological events such as cellular communication, infection, inflammation, enzyme trafficking, cellular migration, cancer metastasis and immune functions. The prominent characteristics of carbohydrates including biodegradability, biocompatibility, hydrophilicity and the highly specific interaction of targeting cell-surface receptors support their potential application to drug delivery system (DDS). This review presents the 21 century development of carbohydrate-based nanocarriers for drug targeting of therapeutic agents for diseases localized in macrophages. The significance of natural carbohydrate derived nanoparticles (GNPs) as anti-microbial drug carriers is highlighted in several areas of treatment including tuberculosis, salmonellosis, leishmaniasis, candidiasis, and HIV/AIDS.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Advanced drug delivery reviews
ISSN: 1872-8294
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.

The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.

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The magnetic stimulation of specific target tissues or areas of the body for therapeutic purposes via the application of magnetic fields generated by magnets or electromagnets.

A DNA amplification technique based upon the ligation of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES. The probes are designed to exactly match two adjacent sequences of a specific target DNA. The chain reaction is repeated in three steps in the presence of excess probe: (1) heat denaturation of double-stranded DNA, (2) annealing of probes to target DNA, and (3) joining of the probes by thermostable DNA ligase. After the reaction is repeated for 20-30 cycles the production of ligated probe is measured.

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