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As antiviral drug resistance develops and new viruses emerge there is a pressing need to develop strategies to rapidly develop antiviral therapeutics. Here we use phospho-specific flow cytometry to assess perturbations of many different cellular signaling pathways during treatment with drug combinations that are highly effective in blocking Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. We discovered two antiviral drug combinations act on distinct signaling pathways, either STAT1 or S6 phosphorylation, to block HSV-1 infection. We focused on upregulation of S6 phosphorylation by HSV-1 infection, and our subsequent finding that ribavirin antagonizes this upregulation of S6 phosphorylation. We go on to show that the S6 kinase inhibitor SL0101 blocks HSV-1 replication in vitro and in an in vivo animal model of HSV-1 infection. Overall, we have used an unbiased analysis of cellular signaling pathways during treatment by antiviral drug combinations to discover a novel antiviral drug target against HSV-1 infection. The outcomes of the approach we present highlight the importance of analyzing how antiviral drugs modulate cellular and pathogen-induced signaling as a method to discover new drug therapy targets.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Antiviral research
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A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.
A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
N-Glycosidases that remove adenines from RIBOSOMAL RNA, depurinating the conserved alpha-sarcin loop of 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA. They often consist of a toxic A subunit and a binding lectin B subunit. They may be considered as PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS. They are found in many PLANTS and have cytotoxic and antiviral activity.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing as well as dispensing drugs and medicines. It is a health profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. The scope of...
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...