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Osteoarthritis is a prevalent worldwide joint disease, which demonstrates a remarkable adverse effect on the patients' life modality. Medicinal agents, exclusively nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), have been routinely applied in the clinic. But, their effects are restricted to pain control with insignificant effects on cartilage renovation, which would finally lead to cartilage destruction. In the field of regenerative medicine, many researchers have tried to use stem cells to repair tissues and other human organs. However, in recent years, with the discovery of extracellular microvesicles, especially exosomes, researchers have been able to offer more exciting alternatives on the subject. Exosomes and microvesicles are derived from different types of bone cells such as mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. They are also recognized to play substantial roles in bone remodeling processes including osteogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, and angiogenesis. Specifically, exosomes derived from a mesenchymal stem cell have shown a great potential for the desired purpose. Exosomal products include miRNA, DNA, proteins, and other factors. At present, if it is possible to extract exosomes from various stem cells effectively and load certain products or drugs into them, they can be used in diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, bone fractures, and other diseases. Of course, to achieve proper clinical use, advances have to be made to establish a promising regenerative ability for microvesicles for treatment purposes in the orthopedic disorders. In this review, we describe the exosomes biogenesis and bone cell derived exosomes in the regenerate process of bone and cartilage remodeling.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Life sciences
The aim of this study was to investigate how bone microstructure within bone marrow lesions (BMLs) relates to the bone and cartilage across the whole human tibial plateau.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by cartilage degeneration resulting from hypertrophic changes in chondrocytes caused by altered gene expression. The involvement of Ras homolog enriched in brain (...
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common disabling joint disease throughout the world and its therapeutic effect is still not satisfactory in clinic nowadays. Recent studies showed that the exosomes der...
The present quantitative study aimed to assess the three-dimensional (3-D) cartilage wear patterns of the first metacarpal and trapezium in the advanced stage of osteoarthritis (OA) and compare cartil...
Age is the most important risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA). It is suggested that changes in subchondral bone and calcified cartilage may occur in early OA. Therefore, the aim was to investigate age...
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common diseases affecting the joints, usually those that are weight bearing such as the knees. OA is considered to be a disease of the cartilage in t...
This study is conducted to assess whether implanting autologous, culture-expanded, mesenchymal stem cells obtained from the bone marrow of patients with early osteoarthritis, cartilage de...
This pilot study will evaluate the clinica! and radiological results of a treatment for knee osteoarthritis with injections of autologous concentrated bone marrow aspirate at the bone-cart...
Obesity and other associated complications promote the development and the progression of osteoarthritis. The subcutaneous and abdominal fat release several factors that alter bone and the...
The purpose of this research is to confirm the efficacy of cartilage regeneration (or stem cell transplant) simultaneously performed with high tibial osteotomy. Furthermore, as conventiona...
A degenerative joint disease involving the SPINE. It is characterized by progressive deterioration of the spinal articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR), usually with hardening of the subchondral bone and outgrowth of bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE).
A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.
Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.
A form of psychotherapy with emphasis on the interplay of organism and environment. Basic to this therapy is the development of awareness and maturity, as well as self-confidence.
A benign neoplasm derived from mesodermal cells that form cartilage. It may remain within the substance of a cartilage or bone (true chondroma or enchondroma) or may develop on the surface of a cartilage (ecchondroma or ecchondrosis). (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Osteoporosis is a disease in which the bones become extremely porous, are subject to fracture, and heal slowly, occurring especially in women following menopause and often leading to curvature of the spine from vertebral collapse. Follow and track&n...
Arthritis is by definition the inflammation of one or more joints, characterized by swelling, pain, warmth, redness and diminished range of joint movement (Oxford Medical Dictionary). There are many different types; Noninflammatory; Osteoarthritis, N...