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The current study investigated behavioral and electrophysiological (event-related potential; ERP) differences associated with task switching in a sample of young and older monolingual and bilingual adults. ERPs associated with task preparation (switch and mixing positivity) and task execution processes (N2 and P3b) were investigated. Participants performed a cued letter-number task switching paradigm that included single task and mixed task blocks, while their electroencephalography was recorded. Behavioral results revealed smaller switch and mixing costs in bilinguals relative to monolinguals, in both young and older participants. There were no ERP differences in the effect size of the cue-locked mixing and switch positivities, nor the target-locked mixing and switch N2 and P3b components. However, overall larger target-locked N2 amplitudes were observed in bilinguals relative to monolinguals. In addition, bilingual older adults exhibited smaller P3b amplitudes than monolingual older adults. The smaller behavioral mixing and switch costs observed in bilinguals suggest that bilinguals exhibit superior sustained attention and faster task-set reconfiguration processes compared to monolinguals. The ERP measures provide evidence for differences in brain processes between monolinguals and bilinguals and a reliance on different processing strategies in bilingual compared to monolingual older adults.
This article was published in the following journal.
Word learning is a multifaceted perceptual and cognitive task that is omnipresent in everyday life. Currently, it is unclear whether this ability is influenced by age, musical expertise or both variab...
The effect bilingualism has on older adults' inhibitory control has been extensively investigated, yet there is continued controversy regarding whether older adult bilinguals show superior inhibitory ...
Older adults improve their cognitive performance on a target task after succeeding in a prior task. We tested whether effects of prior-task success occur via changing older adults' ability to select t...
A deviant-related negativity (DRN), mismatch negativity (MMN), and P3a are electrophysiological measures thought to reflect processes involved in the involuntary switching of attention to a task-irrel...
We investigated how older adults preserve the capability to acquire new motor skills in the face of age-related brain alterations. We assessed neural changes associated with learning a bimanual coordi...
Anhedonia, decreased motivation for and sensitivity to rewarding experiences, is present in at least 1/3 of community dwelling older adults and is a feature of various psychiatric and neur...
Background: Promotion of cognitive functions of middle aged and older adults and prevention of dementia are important issues in the aging society. In recent years, studies have shown that ...
This study will train participants (young people and older adults) to do a visual task, and will assess whether this results in changes in behavioral assessments. In some participants, we ...
Inherent with intricate allocation of brain resource and attention shift, postural-suprapostural task is defined as postural control takes place while the other concurrent task is being pe...
Aging is associated with impairments in cognitive function, particularly motor learning and memorizing, impacting functional capacities. Older adults are still able to learn new skills but...
Community centers for older adults and providers of resources for the community. In addition to providing services and activities for older adults that reflect the community's diversity, they link participants with resources offered by other agencies.
Simultaneous task performance, or switching between tasks in a concentrated period of time.
Telephone surveys are conducted to monitor prevalence of the major behavioral risks among adults associated with premature MORBIDITY and MORTALITY. The data collected is in regard to actual behaviors, rather than on attitudes or knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 1984.
A malignant solid tumor arising from mesenchymal tissues which normally differentiate to form striated muscle. It can occur in a wide variety of sites. It is divided into four distinct types: pleomorphic, predominantly in male adults; alveolar (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, ALVEOLAR), mainly in adolescents and young adults; embryonal (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, EMBRYONAL), predominantly in infants and children; and botryoidal, also in young children. It is one of the most frequently occurring soft tissue sarcomas and the most common in children under 15. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2186; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1647-9)
Older adults or aged individuals who are lacking in general strength and are unusually susceptible to disease or to other infirmity.