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The dispersal of individuals within an animal population will depend upon local properties intrinsic to the environment that differentiate superior from inferior regions as well as properties of the population. Competing concerns can either draw conspecifics together in aggregation, such as collective defence against predators, or promote dispersal that minimizes local densities, for instance to reduce competition for food. In this paper we consider a range of models of non-independent movement. We include established models, such as the ideal free distribution, but also develop novel models, such as the wheel. We also develop several ways to combine different models to create a flexible model of addressing a variety of dispersal mechanisms.In this paper we consider a range of models of non-independent movement including established models, novel ones developed here, and ways to combine different models to create a flexible way of addressing a variety of dispersal mechanisms. We further devise novel measures of movement coordination and show how to generate a population movement that achieves appropriate values of the measure specified. We find the value of these measures for each of the core models described, as well as discuss their use, and potential limitations, in discerning the underlying movement mechanisms. The movement framework that we develop is both of interest as a stand-alone process to explore movement, but also able to generate a variety of movement patterns that can be embedded into wider evolutionary models where movement is not the only consideration.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of theoretical biology
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Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...