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Recent studies have shown that not only neurons but astrocytes contain a considerable amount of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which can be released and activate the receptors responsive to GABA. The purpose of this study is to test whether gliotransmitters from astrocytes may play a role in etiology of anxiety symptoms. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), one of potent inflammatory cytokines, induced anxiety-like behaviors and activated the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Pretreatment with astrocytes toxin, L-α-aminoadipate (L-AAA) reduced anxiety-like behaviors and the GFAP expression in the PVN. Intraparaventricular nucleus (iPVN) infusion of IL-1β produced markedly anxiety-like behaviors and increased release of GABA from astrocytes. However, treatment of glial cell inhibitor, L-AAA or blocker of Bestrophin-1 (Best1), 5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB) markedly inactivated astrocytes and also reduced the anxiety-like behaviors. Treatment of L-AAA or NPPB decreased IL-1β-induced gliotransmitter GABA release measured by in vivo microdialysis. These results suggest that selective inhibition of astrocytes or astocytic GABA release in the PVN may serve as an effective therapeutic strategy for treating anxiety and affective disorders.
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Accumulating evidence from preclinical and clinical studies has implicated a role for the cytokine IL-6 in a variety of CNS diseases including anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, as well as al...
Pro-inflammatory cytokines produce manifestations of sickness during inflammation, such as malaise and lethargy. They also contribute to effects of inflammation on mood. Anti-inflammatory cytokines co...
Preoperative anxiety is common in patients undergoing elective surgery and is closely related to postoperative hyperalgesia. In this study, a single prolonged stress (SPS) model was used to induce pre...
Chronic stress-induced emotional disorders like anxiety and depression involve imbalances between the excitatory glutamatergic system and the inhibitory GABAergic system in the prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
As a major producer of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1), peripheral macrophages can augment IL-1 expression via type 1 IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1) mediated autocrine self-amplification. In th...
The investigators wish to study the role of persistent markers of inflammation in executive function in young children during critical periods of synaptogenesis (ages 2-3). While the role ...
Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are a heterogeneous subset of ex-vivo expanded T lymphocytes which present a mixed T-NK phenotype and are endowed with a major histocompatibility comple...
To provide rigorous, detailed normative data for diagnostics and comparative studies, to determine relationships between cytokine levels (and other biomarkers) and clinical data, and gain ...
This pilot early phase I trial studies the side effects of vaccine therapy and cytokine-induced killer cells in treating patients with glioblastoma that has come back. Vaccines made from a...
Recently, cytokine polymorphisms are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. We intended to clarify the association between polymorphis...
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
A family of structurally related proteins that are induced by CYTOKINES and negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. SOCS proteins contain a central SH2 DOMAIN and a C-terminal region of homology known as the SOCS box.
Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. Some are also effective as anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, or anesthesia adjuvants. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.
A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.
Cytokines include chemokines, lymphokines, and monokines. Cells of the immune system communicate with one another by releasing and responding to chemical messengers called cytokines. These proteins are secreted by immune cells and act on other cells to...
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Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...