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Estradiol, either from peripheral or central origin, activates multiple molecular neuroprotective and neuroreparative responses that, being mediated by estrogen receptors or by estrogen receptor independent mechanisms, are initiated at the membrane, the cytoplasm or the cell nucleus of neural cells. Estrogen-dependent signaling regulates a variety of cellular events, such as intracellular Ca levels, mitochondrial respiratory capacity, ATP production, mitochondrial membrane potential, autophagy and apoptosis. In turn, these molecular and cellular actions of estradiol are integrated by neurons and non-neuronal cells to generate different tissue protective responses, decreasing blood-brain barrier permeability, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and excitotoxicity and promoting synaptic plasticity, axonal growth, neurogenesis, remyelination and neuroregeneration. Recent findings indicate that the neuroprotective and neuroreparative actions of estradiol are different in males and females and further research is necessary to fully elucidate the causes for this sex difference.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Frontiers in neuroendocrinology
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