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The role of gut microbes in health and disease has often been surmised from stool, which is easily sampled and rich in microbial diversity, density, and abundance. Microbial analyses of stool have been accepted as measures to determine the relationship of gut microbiomes with host health and disease, based on the belief that it represents all microbial populations throughout the gut. However, functional heterogeneity of each gastrointestinal tract (GIT) segment gives rise to regional differences in gut microbial populations. Herein, we summarize the literature regarding the microbial landscape along the rostral to caudal, i.e., horizontal mouth to anus, axis of the GIT. We aim to identify gaps in the literature, particularly regarding small intestinal microbiota abundance and diversity, highlight the importance of regional microbiota on host health and disease, as well as discuss opportunities to advance this line of research.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cell host & microbe
The virome is one of the most variable components of the human gut microbiome. Within twin pairs, viromes have been shown to be similar for infants, but not for adults, indicating that as twins age an...
Microbiome dysbiosis has been associated with adverse hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes. We hypothesized that exposure to high-dose melphalan and antimicrobials in patients undergoing autolo...
To determine if urinary microbial communities similar to those described in adults exist in children and to profile the urinary and gastrointestinal microbiome in children presenting to urology for bo...
For some years, microbiome research has become a thriving topic. The most diverse and hitherto poorly understood connections of interactions of the microbiome with the host body (human) seem to play a...
The role of the microbiome in healthy and disease states of the human body is progressively being found to extend beyond the gastrointestinal tract and into other organ systems such as the skin. Resea...
This study will investigate the effects of gut microbiome diversity (richness in terms of many bacterial species in the gut) on responses and side effects of immunotherapy in advanced mela...
The human oral cavity is a diverse habitat that contains approximately 700 prokaryotic species. The oral microbiome is comprised of 44% named species, 12% isolates representing unnamed spe...
The aim of this Project is, within the scope of industrial research, to evaluate the long term effects of H.pylori eradication on microbiome (gut microbiome, upper respiratory tract microb...
The objective of this study is to determine the association between gut microbiome diversity and the characteristics of rebound pain at offset of peripheral nerve block in patients who hav...
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence factors of gastrointestinal microbiome in infants.
All of the microbial organisms that naturally exist within the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Regional infusion of drugs via an arterial catheter. Often a pump is used to impel the drug through the catheter. Used in therapy of cancer, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infection, and peripheral vascular disease.
Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.
A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.