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Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disease characterized by progressive loss and remodeling of the pulmonary arteries resulting in right heart failure and death. Until recently, PAH was seen as a disease restricted to the pulmonary circulation. However, there is growing evidence that PAH patients also exhibit systemic vascular dysfunction, as evidenced by impaired brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, abnormal cerebral blood flow, skeletal myopathy, and intrinsic kidney disease. While some of these anomalies are partially due to right ventricular insufficiency, recent data support a mechanistic link to the genetic and molecular events behind PAH pathogenesis. This review will serve as an introduction to the major systemic findings in PAH and the evidence that supports a common mechanistic link with PAH pathophysiology. In addition, we will discuss recent studies describing morphological changes in systemic vessels and the possible role of bronchopulmonary anastomoses in the development of plexogenic arteriopathy. Based on available evidence, we propose a paradigm in which metabolic abnormalities, genetic injury and systemic vascular dysfunction contribute to systemic manifestations in PAH. This concept not only opens exciting research possibilities, but also encourages clinicians to consider extrapulmonary manifestations in their management of PAH patients.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
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Study Performed at Various Medical Centers to Learn More About Survival and Expected Course of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, a Type of High Blood Pressure in the Lungs Related to the Narrowing of the Small Blood Vessels in the Lungs
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A congenital cardiovascular malformation in which the AORTA arises entirely from the RIGHT VENTRICLE, and the PULMONARY ARTERY from the LEFT VENTRICLE. Consequently, the pulmonary and the systemic circulations are parallel and not sequential, so that the venous return from the peripheral circulation is re-circulated by the right ventricle via aorta to the systemic circulation without being oxygenated in the lungs. This is a potentially lethal form of heart disease in newborns and infants.
A malformation of the heart in which the embryonic common PULMONARY VEIN was not incorporated into the LEFT ATRIUM leaving behind a perforated fibromuscular membrane bisecting the left atrium, a three-atrium heart. The opening between the two left atrium sections determines the degree of obstruction to pulmonary venous return, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
A congenital anomaly caused by the failed development of TRUNCUS ARTERIOSUS into separate AORTA and PULMONARY ARTERY. It is characterized by a single arterial trunk that forms the outlet for both HEART VENTRICLES and gives rise to the systemic, pulmonary, and coronary arteries. It is always accompanied by a ventricular septal defect.
A condition associated with VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT and other congenital heart defects that allow the mixing of pulmonary and systemic circulation, increase blood flow into the lung, and subsequent responses to low oxygen in blood. This complex is characterized by progressive PULMONARY HYPERTENSION; HYPERTROPHY of the RIGHT VENTRICLE; CYANOSIS; and ERYTHROCYTOSIS.
Pulmonary relating to or associated with the lungs eg Asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, COPD, Cystic Fibrosis, Influenza, Lung Cancer, Pneumonia, Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Sleep Disorders etc Follow and track Lung Cancer News ...
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic, life-threatening disorder characterized by abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries between the heart and lungs of affected individuals. Symptoms can range from mild breathles...