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Carrying heavy loads costs additional energy during walking and leads to fatigue of the user. Conventionally, the load is fixed on the body. Some recent studies showed energy cost reduction when the relative motion of the load with respect to the body was allowed. However, the influences of the load's relative motion on the user are still not fully understood. We employed an optimization-based biped model which can generate human-like walking motion to study the load-carrier interaction. The relative motion can be achieved by a passive mechanism (such as springs) or a powered mechanism (such as actuators), and the relative motion can occur in the vertical or fore-aft directions. The connection between the load and body is added to the biped model in four scenarios (two types × two directions). The optimization results indicate that the stiffness values affect energy cost differently and the same stiffness value in different directions may have opposite effects. Powered relative motion in either direction can potentially reduce energy cost but the vertical relative motion can achieve a higher reduction than fore-aft relative motion. Surprisingly, powered relative motion only performs marginally better than the passive conditions at similar peak interaction force levels. This work provides insights into developing more economical load-carrying methods and the model presented may be applied to the design and control of wearable load-carrying devices.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of biomechanical engineering
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In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
A method of chemical analysis based on the detection of characteristic radionuclides following a nuclear bombardment. It is also known as radioactivity analysis. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
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