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Migration of cells from both local and systemic sources is essential for the inflammatory and regenerative processes that occur during normal wound healing. CXCL12 is considered a critical regulator of CXCR4-positive cell migration during tissue regeneration. In this study, we investigated the expression of Cxcl12 and Cxcr4 during healing of a murine full thickness ear wound. We also investigated the expression of angiopoietin-like 4, which has been shown to participate in wound angiogenesis and reepithelialization. At time points up to 48hrs, complete blood counts were performed using automated hematology analysis, and the numbers of circulating stem and progenitor cells quantified using flow cytometry. Expression of both Cxcr4 and Angptl4 was significantly elevated within 3 days of wounding, and both were strongly expressed in cells of the epidermis. ANGPTL4 protein expression remained elevated in the epithelium through day 14. Cxcl12 expression was increased significantly at day 3, and remained elevated through day 21. Faint Cxcl12 staining was detectable in the epithelium at day 1, and thereafter staining was faint and more generalized. There were significantly fewer circulating total white blood cells and lymphocytes 1hr following ear punching. Similarly, there was a significant early (1hr) reduction in the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether ANGPTL4 and CXCL12/CXCR4 interact or synergize to facilitate cell recruitment and migration, and to potentiate reepithelialization and wound healing.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
In adult brain, the chemokine CXCL12 and its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 are expressed in neural progenitor and glial cells. Conditional Cxcl12 or Cxcr4 gene knockout in mice leads to severe alterations...
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A single cohort, open-label pilot study of the safety and tolerability of a single infusion of autologous CD4+ T-cells genetically modified with an HR2, C34-peptide conjugated to the CXCR4...
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A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
An angiopoietin that is closely related to ANGIOPOIETIN-1. It binds to the TIE-2 RECEPTOR without receptor stimulation and antagonizes the effect of ANGIOPOIETIN-1. However its antagonistic effect may be limited to cell receptors that occur within the vasculature. Angiopoietin-2 may therefore play a role in down-regulation of BLOOD VESSEL branching and sprouting.
The first to be discovered member of the angiopoietin family. It may play a role in increasing the sprouting and branching of BLOOD VESSELS. Angiopoietin-1 specifically binds to and stimulates the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. Several isoforms of angiopoietin-1 occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.
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Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Alternative medicine are whole medical systems that did not fit with conventional medicine as they have completely different philosophies and ideas on the causes of disease, methods of diagnosis and approaches to treatment. Although often overlapping, co...